Keynote Speaker:

Title: Farm Animal Welfare in a World of Changing Expectations
Author: David Fraser
Summary: Cultural attitudes toward animals have been changing rapidly during the past 50 years. These changes have culminated in some remarkable and very recent developments in farm animal welfare. To prepare for such changes, the animal industries need certain services and resources to be in place.

Session I. Benchmarks for a Successful Dairy Operation

Title: The 100-Day Contract with the Dairy Cow: 30 Days Prepartum to 70 Days Postpartum
Author: James N. Spain
Summary: The dairy cow is undergoing numerous changes in endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, and physiological status as she prepares for calving and initiation of lactation. If the negative energy balance during transition becomes excessive, metabolic diseases such as fatty liver and ketosis can result. Intensive management of the nutrition, feeding system, and environment of the periparturient dairy cow reduces the odds of disease and increases the odds of success.

Title: Troubleshooting Nutritional Disorders
Author: Randy D. Shaver
Summary: Digestive disorders, sub-acute rumen acidosis and displaced abomasum, cause economic loss in dairy herds through treatment costs, production loss, and premature culling. Evaluate ration formulation, feed quality and physical form, feed delivery, bunk management, cow comfort, and animal performance parameters when troubleshooting digestive disorders. Herds with  inadequate feeding and management programs for transition cows are at an increased risk of developing nutritional disorders.

Title: Using Farm Records to Set Benchmarks on the Farm
Author: Sandra Stokes
Summary: Proper data assimilation allows farm information to be used in decision-making. Regular evaluation of key data can allow early intervention to problem areas. Peer discussion groups can provide comparisons of local data for benchmarking herd progress.

Session II. Health

Title: Direct Production Losses and Treatment Costs due to Four Dairy Cattle Diseases
Author: Alfons Weersink
Summary: The direct production losses and treatment costs at the herd level were: $2,421 for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), $806 for enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), $2,472 for Johne’s Disease (JD), and $2,304 for neosporosis in the Maritime provinces of Canada. Total costs at the industry level were $1,264,355, $641,061, $842,042, and $1,909,794 for BVD, EBL, JD, and neosporosis, respectively. The distributions for all diseases were positively skewed, implying that the average costs reported above were higher than what most farmers experienced. The largest effect on costs was due to milk yield effects.

Title: Alberta’s Johne’s Disease Control Program
Author: Chunu Mainali
Summary: Johne’s disease is an infectious, progressive and debilitating disease of livestock. An infected herd not only impacts production and trade but may also have potential link with Crohn’s disease in humans. Alberta Johne’s Disease Control Program is comprised of four integrated components: awareness and education; veterinary accreditation; Voluntary Johne’s Herd Status Program; and collaborative research.

Title: Can We Prevent Hoof Problems?
Author: Roger Blowey
Summary: Lameness remains a major problem in dairy cattle worldwide. In the UK the average incidence is around 50 cases per 100 cows per year, with much higher incidences being seen in some free-stall housed cattle. Because of its effect on subsequent fertility and production, the cost of a single case of lameness is estimated to be around £200 ($450 Canadian), although this will vary enormously from case to case depending on severity.

Title: Minimizing Lameness through Genetic Selection
Authors: Gordon Atkins and Jay Shannon
Summary: The cause of lameness is multi-factorial and includes conformation defects, nutrition, environmental stress, injury, and infection. Estimates of heritability for foot and leg disorders range from near zero to greater than 30%. Since bull proofs do not exist for foot disease traits, the next best approach for utilizing genetics to minimize lameness is the use of foot and leg conformation as an indirect selection tool.

Session III. Dairy Policy

Title: Who Benefits from Deregulated Milk Prices: The Missing Link is the Marketing Channel
Author: Ronald W. Cotterill
Summary: As I will show you today in this paper the degree of competition in the market channel structure determines to a large extent who benefit from deregulated milk prices. When one introduces the milk marketing channel to the problem one is faced squarely with a fundamental question of price transmission. What we mean by price transmission is captured by the following question: if one lowers the farm price through milk price deregulation how much of that decreased farm price will be transmitted forward to consumers?

Title: Industry View of Environmental Issues
Author: Carissa Itle
Summary: Producers must become increasingly aware of environmental regulations that can impact their way of doing business. In the U.S., recent federal and state initiatives have aimed at minimizing the environmental impacts of animal agriculture. In addition, many producer groups are developing voluntary, incentive-based programs to educate producers and assist them in making environmental management decisions.

Title: The Next Round of WTO Negotiations: What Is In It For Dairy?
Author: James Rude
Summary: A new round of World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations are underway with a schedule of tasks to be completed by 2005. To date, good progress has been made, but in order to meet the deadline for completion the U.S. Administration has to receive negotiating authority from Congress. Border measures, such as tariffs, are the biggest obstacle to liberalized trade in dairy products. Most large developed countries use a system of two-tiered tariffs to protect their markets. The system only allows limited access at preferential tariffs, while over-quota tariffs are often prohibitive.

Keynote Speaker:

Title: A Blueprint for Evaluating Feeding Programs
Author: Michael F. Hutjens
Summary: Dairy managers and cows make feeding changes on the farm. Some changes are intentional (such as reformulation of rations) while others “happen” (such as heat stress). The skilled manager, feed consultant, and veterinarian are continually evaluating and “reading” cows. Monitoring milk yield and components reflect nutrient balance. Feed particle size is critical for health and optimal production. Blood, milk, and urine measurements can identify metabolic risks. Feeding program economics are key to profitability.

Session IV. Reproduction

Title: The Future of Dairy Reproductive Management
Author: Matthew C. Lucy
Summary: Reproductive efficiency of modern dairy herds is declining. Greater milk production of modern dairy cows only explains a small percentage of the reproductive decline. Other factors including housing and reproductive management as well as the physiology and genetics of modern dairy cows are probably more important. Reproductive efficiency of modern dairy cows can be improved through attention to detail when using current reproductive methods, genetic selection of sires whose daughters have superior fertility, pharmacological control of reproduction, and the use of automated management systems.

Title: Managing Postpartum Reproductive Issues
Author: W. Ronald Butler
Summary: Negative energy balance during early lactation is the major nutritional link to low fertility in lactating dairy cows. Negative energy balance delays recovery of postpartum reproductive function and exerts carryover effects that reduce fertility during the breeding period. Animal health components (liver, uterus, mammary gland) affect reproductive performance. Feeding, nutrition, and health of lactating cows for improved reproductive performance begins in the transition period and continues through early lactation.

Title: Essentiality of Specific Fatty Acids in Reproductive Performance of High Producing Dairy Cows
Author: James N. Spain
Summary: High levels of milk produced by today’s dairy cows create a challenge in meeting the animals’ energy requirements during early lactation. The resulting negative energy balance impairs reproduction. Supplemental fats have been used to increase energy density of the diet with the intent of reducing the magnitude of the early lactation energy imbalance. Fats may play a more important role associated with reproduction through the function of essential fatty acids. It may be possible to use fat sources to supply specific essential fatty acids that will enhance reproductive performance of high producing dairy cows.

Title: Stress and Its Effects on Fertility of the Dairy Cow
Author: Hilary Dobson
Summary: It is important to identify the incidence of major stressors on each individual farm – these will vary from farm to farm. Some every-day events are stressful for cows. Lameness and bad calvings have significant effects on fertility. Mastitis is also painful and has a major economic impact. Try solving one problem at a time. Financial considerations will probably dictate your emphasis.

Session V. Forages – From Field to Milk

Title: The Importance of Forage Quality for Milk Production and Health
Author: Sandra Stokes
Summary: Forages are the foundation behind dairy rations and forage quality affects herd health and production performance. Quality forage supplies on the dairy don’t just happen. They are the result of a planned and executed forage management program.

Title: Choosing the Right Corn Hybrid for Silage
Author: William P. Weiss
Summary: Potential differences between corn silage hybrids in net dollar returns can be estimated using yield, NDF concentration, and in vitro NDF digestibility data obtained from yield trial summaries. Higher economic value should be assigned to hybrids with increased concentrations of NDF and energy. These are important nutrients in corn silage and are likely to differ between hybrids. Any differences in economic value of the hybrids must be compared to potential differences in production costs.

Title: Cereal Silage Options for Western Canada
Author: James H. Helm
Summary: Cereal crops provide producers with a lot of options that allow the producer to balance silage yield, quality, harvesting and storage. Producers must look at species, varieties and mixtures as ways of controlling silage quality. In monocrops, the stage of harvest should be at the soft-dough stage. In mixtures, the later maturing component at the soft-dough stage will give
highest yield and energy and if harvested when the earliest component is at the soft-dough stage, protein content will increase. Disease factors are important considerations. Rotate your crops and
varieties to guard against the build up of new diseases or disease races.

Title: Rumen Acidosis in Dairy cattle: Bunk Management Considerations
Author: Randy D. Shaver
Summary: Bunk management is a risk factor for sub-acute rumen acidosis (SARA). A myriad of errors in feed delivery and bunk management can occur on commercial dairies. Bunk management practices that promote feed sorting and slug feeding must be controlled to minimize the incidence of SARA. Cow comfort, her environment, and the formulated diet need to be
evaluated in conjunction with bunk management practices when investigating laminitis problem herds.

Session VI. Integrated Nutrient Management

Title: Nutrient Cycling and Attempts to Reduce Nutrient Losses from Farms in Maryland
Author: Richard A. Kohn
Summary: Nutrient management regulations are increasingly focused on mandating nutrient management plans and preventing runoff from manure storage and animal holding areas. Although most regulations have focused on manure management and fertilizer application, the most cost effective means to reduce nutrient pollution and comply with regulations is to improve production per cow and feed closer to requirements.

Session VII. Milking Management and Calf Feeding

Title: Increasing Milking Frequency
Author: Mark Varner
Summary: Milk yield increases by a fixed amount due to increased milking frequency, and not by some percentage of previous milk yields. Six times-a-day milking frequency from calving through six weeks postpartum results in not only increased production during the period of high frequency milking, but also in a significant carry-over during the remainder of lactation while milked three times-a-day.

Title: Passive Immunity in Newborn Calves
Author: James Quigley
Summary: The neonatal immune system at birth is naïve to the wide variety and types of pathogens present in the environment. Consumption of colostrum to provide circulating IgG prior to the cessation of macromolecular transport (“closure”) is essential to ensure healthy calves. There are a tremendous number of factors that may influence the absorption of IgG by calves; therefore, blanket recommendations for feeding one amount of colostrum to all calves is inappropriate.

Session IX. Management and Facilities

Title: A Case Study Farm; Visiting Ralph Rumen
Author: Michael F. Hutjens
Summary: Developing a plan when evaluating a feed program allows individuals to find weak areas in the dairy operation. Evaluating the milk production records (yield, components, and trends) provides an “early look” at potential problems. Observing cow behavior will rule in and out key problems. Obtaining input from other sources on the farm including the veterinarian, feed dealer/consultant, and foot trimmer will add to the plan and strategies.

Title: Planning for the Future: How Modernization Can Increase Your Farm’s Profitability
Author: Roger W. Palmer
Summary: The role of the dairy manager is to plan strategically and to direct resources in a way that leads to a profitable and sustainable dairy enterprise. Management is the process of decision-making and has three major functions: planning, implementation and control.

Title: Cow Facilities and Effects on Performance
Author: John F. Smith
Summary: Maximizing access to feed and water is a critical design factor. Selecting cow housing is a critical decision. Avoid just looking at initial investment cost of freestall barns. Stress should be minimized in the milking facility by limiting the time cows are away from feed and water. Avoid building bottlenecks into the dairy design that limit your ability to correctly group cows. Design your dairy to manage heat stress in the holding pen and cow housing.

Title: Dairying Together as a Family
Author: Bernard L. Erven
Summary: Dairying together as a family is challenging. It also has the potential of being extremely rewarding. Understanding the family business environment starts the process of success
with family labor. Several family business characteristics appear negative. The challenge is to take advantage of the significant strengths of family businesses while dealing with their inherent weaknesses.


Title: Efficacy of ECF Dipstick Test for Determination of Nonpregnancy in Dairy Cattle
Authors: J.D. Ambrose, B. Radke, P.A. Day, M. MacLean

Title: Feeding Behaviour of Dairy Cattle
Authors: L. Baird, T. DeVries, M. von Keyserlingk, D.Weary, J. Shelford, K. Beauchemin.

Title: Sole Lesions and Lameness in Dairy Cattle
Authors: Erin Bell, Frances Flower & Daniel Weary

Title: An Economic Analysis of Productive Efficiency in Alberta Dairy Production
Authors: Heather-Anne R. Grant and Scott R. Jeffrey

Title: Rumen Undegradable Protein from Grass
Authors: P. Groenenboom, J. Shelford, and S. Bittman

Title: Interregional Dairy Cost Efficiency Comparison: The Case of Alberta and Ontario
Authors: Getu Hailu, Scott Jeffrey and Jim Unterschultz

Title: Effects of Neck Rail Position on Dairy Cattle Behavior
Authors: Cassandra B. Tucker and Daniel M. Weary

Title: Dairy and Animal Science Electronic Executive Summaries (DASEE)
Author: Mark Varner

Title: Optimizing Particle Size of Dairy Cow Diets with the Penn State Particle Separator
Authors: Wen Z. Yang and Karen A. Beauchemin

Title: Bacteria Counts In Sand and Sawdust Bedding
Authors: Gosia Zdanowicz, Jim Shelford, Dan Weary, Cassandra Tucker


Session I: Breeding for Profit in the New Millennium

Title: Increased Inbreeding and Relationships of Holsteins – How Much Further Should We Go?
Author: Les Hansen

Title: Effect of Inbreeding on Lifetime Performance of Dairy Cows
Author: Bennet Cassell
Summary: Inbreeding should be managed in a herd breeding programs rather than avoided. Outstanding bulls should be used if the benefits of genetic improvement exceed losses from any possible inbreeding depression. Inbreeding in offspring differs for each sire-dam combination, making mate assignments important if inbreeding is to be managed properly. Blanket
recommendations of a bull as an “outcross” to groups of cows may not be effective in reducing the impact of inbreeding.

Title: Relationship of Production and Conformation to Lifetime Profit
Author: Bennet Cassell
Summary: Type traits are useful for improving lifetime profit, but are less useful than most producers believe. Production traits, productive life, and SCS are much more valuable traits to change through selection. Just because somebody recorded data on 14 type traits and calculated genetic evaluations on them doesn’t mean that all those traits should affect sire selection. Closer front teat placement has some value. Deep udders are harmful but shallow udders that don’t milk are even worse. Genetic differences between bulls in foot angle doesn’t affect lifetime profit very

Title: Longevity of Holstein Cows Bred to be Large versus Small for Body Size
Author: Les Hansen
Summary: Two lines of Holstein cows that have been bred for over 25 years to differ for body size did not differ for production or calving ease. Cows in the large line had greater body weight, body dimensions, and birth weight of calves, and required more A.I. services to conception during first lactation.

Session II: Management and Health

Title: Optimizing Milk Production and Reproductive Efficiency by Controlling Metabolic Disease
Author: David Byers
Summary: A healthy cow will give more milk and have better reproduction. Controlling metabolic diseases is necessary for optimum performance. Metabolic diseases are complexes (e.g., one condition leads to another, and to another, etc.). Fatty liver, hypocalcemia, and acidosis-laminitis are major metabolic complexes that adversely affect dairy cattle performance.

Title: Dry Cow Nutrition and Metabolic Disease in Parturient Cows
Author: Jesse Goff
Summary: Stimulate the growth of “lactate metabolizing” bacterial species in the rumen. Stimulate growth of the rumen wall so absorption of nutrients is maximized. Payoff – less ketosis, fewer displaced abomasums, less rumen acidosis and less lameness due to laminitis in early lactation.

Title: Retained Placenta: Causes and Treatment
Author: Chuck Guard
Summary: Retained placenta is defined as the failure to pass all or part of the placenta from the uterus within 24 hours of calving. There are several potential causes for placental retention but the effects on the general health of the cow and her subsequent reproductive performance are costly events to the dairyman.

Session III: Managing Reproduction and Health for Profit

Title: An Overview of Strategies to Improve Reproductive Efficiency
Author: Divakar Ambrose
Summary: Inefficient heat detection is the single largest reason for infertility. Spend more time detecting heat and do it more frequently. Take advantage of estrus synchronization. Inducing estrus in groups of three or more cows helps in enhancing estrus behaviour and heat detection rate. Choose a simple, effective protocol and use it aggressively. Revisit semen handling procedures and insemination techniques. Reconsider managerial factors. Set voluntary waiting period at 60 days. Cows in poor body condition at breeding are less likely to conceive. Use body condition scores for reproductive management.

Title: Management Strategies for Improving Reproductive Efficiency in Lactating Dairy Cows
Author: Paul Fricke
Summary: Dairy producers should strive to improve pregnancy rate by improving the AI service rate in their herd. Estrus detection is poor on most dairy farms not only because of inadequate estrus detection protocols, but because expression of estrus behavior is poor in lactating dairy cows. Estrus detection aids are useful tools for improving estrus detection efficiency and AI service rates.

Title: New Information on Timed Breeding Protocols for Lactating Dairy Cows
Author: Paul Fricke
Summary:  Synchronization of ovulation and timed AI improves pregnancy rate in a dairy herd by increasing AI service rate. Timed AI to synchronization of ovulation results in conception rates similar to that of AI to a standing estrus. Timed AI after synchronization of ovulation can be conducted any time from 8 to 24 hours after the second GnRH injection of the protocol. Ovsynch is a cost-effective tool for managing reproduction in lactating dairy cows.

Title: Humane Marketing and Transportation of Cull Dairy Cows
Authors: Margaret Fisher and Byrnne Rothwell
Summary: Cull dairy cows have characteristics which can make them difficult to humanely market. Dairy producers should be making marketing decisions which will ensure humane salvage of their animals. Compromised dairy cows should not be marketed through auction markets.

Session IV: Nutrition and Management

Title: Critical Evaluation of Feeding Options for Replacement Calves
Author: Jim Drackley
Summary: Milk replacers have advantages where concern exists about spread of infectious diseases (Johne’s, BVD, leukosis) to calves. Excess colostrum and transition milk produce the lowest-cost gain, while quota-priced milk produces the most costly gain. Milk replacer results in lower-cost gain than quota-priced milk when fed at equal nutrient intakes, but is more costly than over-quota milk.

Title: Practical On-Farm Suggestions for Managing Body Condition, Dry Matter Intake for Optimum Production, Reproduction and Health
Author: David Byers
Summary: Objectives of body condition management include 1) preventing excessive body condition loss in early lactation, 2) restoration of body condition during lactation, and 3) maintenance of body condition during the dry period. The key to preventing excessive body condition loss in early lactation is to optimize dry matter intake (DMI). Restoring body condition during lactation requires strategic planning.

Title: New Perspectives on Energy Values and Supplementation Levels of Supplemental Fats
Author: Jim Drackley
Summary: Use of supplemental fat is a proven method to improve energy balance of cows, which may result in increased milk yield, better body condition, and improved reproductive performance. Energy values of fats are difficult to determine and are highly dependent on digestibility of the supplemental fat. Providing the optimal amount of supplemental fat will result in the greatest profits to dairy producers. Evidence is provided that the optimal amount of supplemental fat likely is about 3% of total dietary dry matter

Title: Mastitis and Retained Placenta – Relationship to Bovine Immunology and Nutrition
Author: Jesse Goff

Title: Nutrient Recycling – What Happens to the Excreted Nutrients?
Author: John Paul
Summary: Most of the nutrients that are fed to dairy cattle end up in the manure. Much of the nitrogen in manure can be lost to the air during storage and after application to land. Other nutrients accumulate in soil because they have no other loss pathways. Excess potassium accumulation is a potential herd health risk. Accumulation of other nutrients including nitrogen may pose increased risk of ground or surface water pollution.

Session V: Health

Title: The Role of Vaccination in a Good Herd Health Program
Author: John Ellis
Summary: Routine vaccination is an integral part of an effective herd health and biosecurity program. Immunity is a complex interaction between non-specific and specific host defense mechanisms. Vaccination is impacted by genetics, age, nutrition, and physiological status of the cow or calf. “Vaccine failure” is most often associated with a faulty vaccination program
rather than a faulty vaccine

Title: Recommended Vaccination and Management Practices for a Successful Herd Health Program
Author: Gordon Atkins
Summary: Successful vaccination programs must be planned to meet the needs of a specific farm. There is a difference between vaccination and immunization. The most successful vaccination programs utilize both modified live and killed vaccines. A calf’s first vaccination is critical to activate the immune system. A good vaccination program must be scientifically correct and still be
compatible with the management practices on the farm. Vaccination is the insurance policy for a healthy herd.

Title: Strategic Parasite Control – A Door Opens
Author: Doug Colwell
Summary: The parasites of most concern in western Canadian dairies appear to be ice and mange. Good diagnosis should precede parasite control decisions. Economics of parasite control vary, but the aesthetic factors may be very important in making treatment decisions.

Title: Control Programs for Digital Dermatitis
Author: Chuck Guard
Summary: Lameness in cattle is a common condition that can result in significant economic loss to a producer through a variety of mechanisms. Lame cows do not eat as much as healthy cows and thus produce less milk or less gain. They may have poor demonstration of estrus or become anestrous. Furthermore, they may be prematurely culled due to low milk production, delayed conception or emergency slaughter.

Session VI: Human Resources and Business Management

Title: The Competitiveness of Alberta’s Dairy Industry
Author: Carlyle Ross
Summary: Timing of regulatory changes and industry adjustment in Alberta and Canada is very critical to future industry sustainability and growth. Domestic regulatory changes should precede border changes to give the local industry sufficient time to adjust. Alberta’s dairy industry seems to be in the best position to compete against other provinces and the USA. There is need for increased public and private investment in research to rapidly increase milk production per cow and reduce milk production costs.

Title: Successful Succession in a Multi-Generation Business with a Team Approach
Author: Gary Bradshaw
Summary: Step 1 Discover People’s Expectations; Step 2 Explore the Options; Step 3 Build a Succession Plan; Step 4 Check With the Experts

Title: Estate and Tax Planning for Succession
Author: Russell Flint
Summary: There are numerous personal and family issues confronting family farms. relating to inter-generational farm transfers. There are complex planning, tax and accounting issues relating to farm succession conveyance. There are solutions, and there are rewards for confronting these difficult issues

Title: Managing the Multi-Generation Business with a Team Approach
Author: Gary Bradshaw
Summary: By recognizing your management strengths, as well as those areas which could be strengthened, your farm business will be a more complete picture for everyone including the employer and employees.

Title: Business Management Skills for the New Millennium
Authors: Len Bauer and Bob Burden
Summary: As dairy farms, along with other farm businesses move into the 3rd millennium they face the challenge of developing and enhancing managerial skills in ten important areas: Negotiating skills and legal awareness, Family and business dynamics skills, Economic and investment analytical skills, Employee relationship skills, People transition management, Information technology and information management skills, Communication and leadership skills, Environmental management skills, Food safety management skills, and Agricultural technology management skills.

Session VII: Creating a Positive Environment for Humans and Animals

Title: Environmental Design for Healthier and More Profitable Cows
Author: Jeff Rushen
Summary: Environments for dairy cattle should be designed so as to reduce stress on the animals. Resting time is important for dairy cattle. Poorly designed stalls for cattle, such as those that are too short or with inadequate flooring, lead to reduced occupancy of free-stalls, reduce the time the cattle spend resting and increase the chance of injury and lameness. High producing cows are more susceptible to stress so increases in production level need to go hand-in-hand with improvements in cow care and comfort.

Title: Building and Remodeling Freestall Housing for Cow Comfort
Author: Bill Bickert
Summary: Freestall design is a compromise between comfort and cleanliness. Of all the factors that discourage cow’s from using freestalls, the condition of the bed is likely the most important. The only logical reason for not using sand as a base and bedding has little to do with cow comfort and udder health, but with the difficulty it adds to the manure system or the availability of high quality sand.

Title: Are you a Source of Stress or Comfort for your Cows?
Author: Anne Marie de Passille
Summary: Cattle’s fear of people can be a major source of stress. This stress causes lost production and reduced milking efficiency. Stressed cattle are difficult to handle and there are increased risks of accidents for handlers and animals. Much of this fear results from the way the cattle are handled, which raise concerns about animal welfare. Cattle quickly learn to recognize individual people and to distinguish those who treat them gently from those who don’t.

Title: Affordable Calf and Heifer Housing
Author: Bill Bickert
Summary: Housing facilities serve as tools for carrying out the essential tasks prescribed by a heifer management program and provide an environment for the animals that is vital to calves, heifers and cows as they grow, mature, reproduce and produce milk. The calf hutch is the gold standard for calf housing in terms of the environment it provides. Special consideration to housing for calves from weaning to 5 or 6 months of age makes the transition at weaning less stressful and reduces a setback that may be equivalent to two weeks or more of growth.

Title: Manure Management – Have You Considered Composting?
Author: John Paul
Summary: Composting may be an option on large farms with a small land base or where an opportunity exists to market the product. The type of composting system depends on the nature of the manure being composted, the end use of the material, the resources available on farm, and the environmental constraints. We are working to develop composting systems that reduce the amount of bulking agent required to allow us to compost liquid manure. Composting with worms may be a good option for some farms.