Session I. Reproductive Management

Keynote Speaker:

Title: The Key to a Successful Reproductive Management Program
Author: Ray L. Nebel
Summary: A calving interval of 13.5 months is an achievable goal that will produce higher daily milk yield and higher milk yield over the length of the lactation. Management must set standard operating procedures for all aspects of the reproduction program such as, heat detection, artificial insemination techniques, hormone injection protocol for synchronization program, and treatment of problem cows and policy established by management must be followed by all. Intensive management of the nutrition, feeding system, and environment of the periparturient  dairy cow during the transition period reduces the odds of disease and increases the odds of pregnancy in a timely manner.

Title: Effects of Nutrition on Fertility in Dairy Cows
Author: Maurice P. Boland
Summary: Fertility has declined significantly in lactating dairy cows. There are some effects of nutrition at the endocrine level; these are variable. Nutrition can influence follicular dynamics,  which in turn can alter fertility. Nutrition influences early embryo development and hence the potential to establish fertility. Treatments such as bST have both positive and negative effects on several aspects of fertility. Methods to manipulate follicular growth and oocyte quality may provide some guidance to improve in fertility in the long-term.

Title: Dietary Fatty Acids and Dairy Cow Fertility
Author: Divakar J. Ambrose
Summary: Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic (C18:2n-6), -linolenic (C18:3n3), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6n-3) acids can affect reproductive function and fertility. Linoleic acid is found mainly in oilseeds, whereas -linolenic acid is found predominantly in forages and in some oilseeds (e.g. flaxseed); Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic  acids are high in fish oils. Dairy cows fed diets high in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (supplementation with menhaden fish meal) or -linolenic acid (supplementation with  flaxseed) during early pregnancy had reduced PGF2 production and increased pregnancy rates.

Title: Controlled Breeding Programs for Reproductive Management
Author: José Eduardo P. Santos
Summary: Manipulation of the estrous cycle to improve service rate and fertility usually impacts positively on PR. Pharmacological control of the estrous cycle involves synchronization of follicular development, control of corpus luteum (CL) regression, and synchronization of ovulation to improve conception and pregnancy rate. The ability to control the time of ovulation precisely with synchronization of ovulation protocols that combine recruitment of follicle growth associated with CL regression, and ultimately induction of a synchronized ovulation has allowed
for successful timed artificial insemination with adequate pregnancy rate.

Session II. Housing and Cow Comfort

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Nutritional Interactions Related to Dairy Shelter Design & Management
Author: Dan F. McFarland
Summary: The design and management of each animal shelter component (feeding, resting, drinking, floor surface, ventilation) can influence the willingness and ability for dairy cows to consume an adequate amount of dry matter. The design of the feeding area should provide a comfortable feeding experience for cows and convenient management for the caretaker. Good animal shelter and feeding area design can not make up for poor (or varying) feed quality or poor management. Even an engineer can feed a hungry cow!

Title: Interrelationships between Housing and Herd Health
Author: Ken Nordlund
Summary: There are myriad interactions between housing and health, some well understood and others that we likely have not yet recognized. In this paper, discussion will be limited to lameness and udder health.

Title: Auditing Cow Comfort – Video behind Barn Doors
Author: Neil G. Anderson
Summary: Astute producers are leading the way in cow comfort. Cows have feelings. Injury, pain, and fear affect cow behaviour, health, and performance. Cows respond to choices of systems, barn features, and management. Lameness, hock sores, and cleanliness are cow responses. Cows audit their care. Reading their report can be a challenge. Cow responses can be audited. Audits include assessments of cows, barn features, and management. Cow comfort scoring is a risk management tool. Cows have rights.

Title: A System to Evaluate Freestalls
Author: Ken Nordlund
Summary: Freestalls can be evaluated using four critical points of adequate surface cushion, adequate body resting space, lunge room for head thrust and an unobstructed “bob-zone”, and adequate height below and behind the neck rail. Surface cushion is the most important factor in determining stall usage. If the stall allows a full forward lunge, the configuration of the stall  divider has little importance. If side lunge is required, the exact height of the divider rails is critical.

Session III. Dairy Farm Policy

Keynote Speaker:

Title: New Zealand, Canada and the Future of the International Dairy Industry
Author: Wade Armstrong
Summary: Fundamental reforms have led to an increasingly efficient and innovative New Zealand dairy industry with the ability to supply consumers with quality products at low cost. While New Zealand (like Canada) is only a mediumsized producer of milk by world standards, 95% of New Zealand milk production is exported. New Zealand trades more dairy products internationally than any other country.

Title: Farm Level Management in Dairy: Does Policy Affect?
Author: Terry Betker
Summary: Policy impacts on dairies directly and indirectly, formally and informally. The pace of trade reform and related policy change is very gradual. However, change is underway,  evidenced domestically and internationally within the WTO. Shifting from day-to-day or operational planning to more formalized strategic planning will provide the best forum to deal with ongoing policy impacts. Past success is no guarantee of future success. There are numerous strategies that can be used to mitigate the risk that is related to changes in dairy policy. “We cannot direct the wind, but we can adjust the sails.” Bertha Calloway

Title: Milk Protein Concentrate Imports: Implications for the North American Dairy Industry
Author: Kenneth W. Bailey
Summary: The TRQ system under the World Trade Agreement has some flaws. Despite the agreement among trading partners to the WTO, the food industry in North America has found creative ways to circumvent tariffs under the TRQ system. The new WTO round should deal with this problem of circumvention by accounting for all trade in milkfat and nonfat solids, and should move away from a product-based TRQ system. In other words, tariffs and quotas should be based on milk components, not tons of finished dairy products.

Title: Future Dairy Policy in Canada
Author: Rick Phillips
Summary: Canadian dairy policy has been relatively successful in obtaining its objectives with respect to producer returns and consumer outcomes. The Canadian domestic market is closer to the long run equilibrium situation economists predict will prevail than the current world market is. Deregulation where it has occurred has resulted in poorer policy outcomes for both producers and consumers. Canadian dairy policies will continue if it is the case that good and practical agricultural policies prevail over misguided economic thinking that doesn’t apply to dairy markets as we know them.

Session IV. Secrets to Success

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Grouping Strategies for Dry and Lactating Dairy Cows – The Southwest Experience
Author: Peter Robinson
Summary: Dairies in the southwest US are highly profitable, at least partly due to their grouping management decisions. Mature cows after dry-off, and heifers within 60 d of calving, are  commonly grouped separately and, within parity groups, are divided into far-off dry and transition dry groups, with the real break commonly found at about 14 days prepartum.

Title: New York versus Western Canadian Dairy Industry: A Personal Experience
Author: Steve Mason
Summary: With over 7,100 milk shippers and 700,000 cows, New York state produces approximately three times as much milk as the four provinces of western Canada. The productivity of New York Holsteins is similar to those in western Canada. At approximately 90 cows per farm, New York state dairies are, on average, larger than those in western Canada although farm sizes range from less than 10 cows to more than 3,000.

Title: Components of a Successful Heat Detection Program
Author: Ray L. Nebel
Summary: Visual heat detection programs have failed to identify the majority of cows in heat. The obvious difficulty in successfully identifying all periods of estrus is their brevity and obscurity. The expression of estrus in cycling cows requires good nutrition, excellent cow comfort, the best hoof health possible, consistency of procedures by all involved, and attention to details. The equal distribution of the onset of standing activity during the day combined with the average estrus duration of 7 hours dictate that observations should occur three to four times daily, approximately six to eight hours apart.

Title: Biosecurity: What Does it Mean?
Author: Gerald W. Ollis
Summary: Biosecurity can apply to many different levels, for example a single premise, a geographical region, an entire country, or parts of several neighboring countries. This presentation will focus on the need for biosecurity in the broadest sense and will not be restricted to a specific farm or business.

Title: Practical Ration Evaluation: Things to Look For To Determine If Your Nutritionist Is Doing a Good Job
Author: Gabriella A. Varga
Summary: Observation of the dairy facility and the cows is a necessary prerequisite prior to ration formulation. Records and benchmarks have to be determined by the nutritionist as part of the pre-work needed for ration balancing. Evaluation of the management abilities and human resources available is critical to determining if the nutritionist’s rations will be implemented
correctly. The expectations of the nutritionist and the goals for the farm need to be agreed upon prior to implementation of a nutritional program.

Session V. Forage Management

Keynote Speaker:

Title: How to Maintain Forage Quality during Harvest and Storage
Author: C. Alan Rotz
Summary: Rapid field curing is important and a good conditioner can help. Spread hay in wide swaths to further speed drying, but avoid very thin swaths to reduce raking loss. Bale hay at about 18% moisture in low-density bales, but use a lower moisture content for high-density large bales. Use good silo management (rapid filling, good packing and a tight cover) to maintain ensiled forage quality. When using silage bags or bale silage, check for punctures periodically to assure that a tight seal is maintained.

Title: Does Crop Health Management Improve Cereal Silage Production in Alberta?
Author: George Clayton
Summary: Integrated Crop Management (ICM) concepts focus on integrating all approaches to crop health, which are driven by the economic and ecological limits of the system. Higher seeding rates result in plant populations that create competitive barley stands and higher silage yield. Diversify crop rotations, either through barley variety or use of other crop types, to meet the production and management needs of the farmer. Normal date of silage harvest with low rates of herbicide can enhance wild oat management, but early-harvested silage can be a very effective wild oat management tool without herbicides.

Title: Corn Silage and Whole Sunflowers – Energy from the Prairie Sun to Your Cows
Author: Douglas Yungblut
Summary: Modern high producing dairy cows face a potentially serious energy deficit in early lactation. There are several ways of addressing this deficit, one of the best being to increase the energy density of the ration. Corn silage has the potential to be a high energy forage, but grain development is important to maximize the energy content of corn silage. The best way to ensure grain development is to select hybrids with the correct maturity. Proper storage and feed-out are critical in ensuring that the cows get the full value from a silage crop. Feeding fat is an excellent way to increase the energy density of dairy rations.

Title: Forage: How Much do Dairy Cows need in a Time of Scarcity?
Author: Karen Beauchemin
Summary: Lack of available good quality forages may prompt some producers to reduce the proportion of forage in the diet. It is possible to maintain high levels of production and animal health with low forage diets, however a higher level of management is required to be successful. Much more care must be taken in formulating low forage diets, particularly with barley diets. To prevent ruminal acidosis, starch content of the diet should not exceed 33%. In most cases, this corresponds to 21 to 23% forage NDF. Lower levels of forage fiber can be fed, but starch content must also be adjusted downward. Maintaining adequate forage particle size is critical in low forage diets.

Session VI. Managing Metabolic Disorders

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Herd-Based Biological Testing for Metabolic Disorders
Author: Garrett R. Oetzel
Summary: Herd-based testing can be used as part of an overall diagnostic scheme for solving herd problems. Biological test results do not stand alone, but must be corroborated by other herd data. Tests must be interpreted in light of the biology they evaluate; some are interpreted as the proportion of cows above or below a threshold, and others are interpreted as means. Minimum sample sizes are about 12 cows for proportional outcomes and 8 cows for mean outcomes.

Title: Transition Cow Management to Reduce Metabolic Diseases and Improve Reproductive Management
Author: José Eduardo P. Santos
Summary: Improvements in fertility in lactating dairy cows can be achieved by feeding management during the transition period aimed at reducing the incidence of metabolic disorder that might directly or indirectly impact reproductive function.

Title: Subacute Ruminal Acidosis in Dairy Cattle
Author: Garrett R. Oetzel
Summary: Ruminal acidosis is as much an important economic and health issue for dairy herds as it is for beef feedlots. Ruminal acidosis is the result of total intake of fermentable  carbohydrate and cannot be predicted by low fiber density alone. Cows possess a number of complex mechanisms to keep their ruminal pH above the biologic threshold of about 5.5. Cows self-correct low ruminal pH by eating less; lower production results. The clinical effects of subacute ruminal acidosis are delayed from the time of the acidotic insult. Milk fat depression is not a consistent feature of ruminal acidosis. Forage particle length and grain particle size are important determinants of the risk for subacute ruminal acidosis. High dry matter intake and over-eating following periods of feed deprivation are often over-looked as important causes of subacute ruminal acidosis.

Title: Trace Minerals in Production and Reproduction in Dairy Cows
Author: Maurice P. Boland
Summary: Fertility in dairy cows has declined significantly in the past 30-50 years. Factors that control the health of the follicle and oocyte are poorly understood. Trace minerals have a significant role to play in many aspects of production including fertility. Improvement in reproductive activity in males and females has been associated with supplementation of minerals, particularly when given in the organic state.

Session VIII. Managing for Profitability

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Do We Need Two Close Up Dry Cow Groups?
Author: Gabriella A. Varga
Summary: Nutrition and management during the transition period are essential in determining the profitability of the cow for the rest of her lactation. Dry cows need to be fed high quality consistent sources of feed. Feeding a one group TMR reduces labor input, allows easier management of feed delivery. The cost associated with feeding one ration throughout the entire dry period is easily offset when considering the costs associated with the treatment and lost production for one case of ketosis. Cow comfort and exercise are critical in assuring an excellent transition program for the high producing dairy cow

Title: Photoperiod Management of Dairy Cattle for Performance and Health
Author: Geoffrey E. Dahl
Summary: Lactating cows should be under long day photoperiod of 16 to 18 hours of light to increase milk production. In late pregnancy expose cows to short day photoperiod of less than 10
hours of light to maximize production and improve health status in the transition period.

Title: Whole Farm Impacts of Automatic Milking Systems
Author: C. Alan Rotz
Summary: A comprehensive assessment is needed when considering the purchase of an automatic milking system because many aspects of the farm are impacted beyond the obvious effects on milking equipment and labor requirements. An automatic milking system normally cannot be justified on an economic basis, but the long-term costs and returns can be similar to  conventional parlor systems when herd size is well matched to milking capacity. The decision to adopt automatic milking is normally driven by noneconomic issues such as the producer’s interest in new technology and the desire or need to alleviate the daily milking routine.

Title: Robotic Milking: The Future?
Author: Bart Geleynse
Summary: Some of the challenges that users of the technology face are capital cost, technical support, lifestyle, regulations, cull rates, milk quality and udder health. The benefits include lifestyle, low stress cow environment, labour issues, milk production, quality, and udder health. Robotics in one form or another will define dairies of the future.

Title: Milking Frequency Effects in Early Lactation
Author: Geoffrey E. Dahl
Summary: As little as 21 days of 4X milking early in lactation can increase yield throughout lactation. Prolactin increases at milking may be the mechanism to enhance mammary cell growth and thus milk yield. Frequent milking early in lactation can improve yields throughout that lactation with little additional cost.


Title: Conception Rates to Timed A.I. and to A.I. at Detected Estrus
Author: Divakar J. Ambrose, Pavol Zalkovic and Phyllis Day

Title: Effect of Dietary Energy and Protein Density on Body Composition in Dairy Heifers during the Peripubertal Period
Author: Chelikani, P. K., J. D. Ambrose, and J. J. Kennelly

Title: Effect of Canola Oil Supplementation on Nutrient Digestion and Milk Composition
Author: Chelikani, P. K., J. A. Bell, and J. J. Kennelly

Title: Leptin: A Multifunctional Signal from Fat
Author: Chelikani, P. K., D. R. Glimm, and J. J. Kennelly


Keynote Speaker:

Title: Integrated Dairy Farm Management
Author: Barbara Dartt
Summary: Small business owners are required to fill each of the three key roles necessary in any business: worker/technician, manager and leader/entrepreneur. Because many dairy producers are production oriented, they spend a majority of their time in the technician role, neglecting management and leadership roles. Transitioning to an emphasis on strategic planning is difficult, but can pay many dividends including improved quality-of-life, profitability and sustainability.

Session I. Management, Nutrition and Health

Title: Transition Cow Programs — The Good, The Bad, And How to Keep Them from Getting Ugly
Author: Thomas R. Overton
Summary: Transition cow management underpins production and profitability on dairy farms. Aggressive monitoring programs for fresh cows prevent cascades of metabolic disorders and improve profitability. We must “manage metabolism” of transition cows by maximizing dry matter intake and ruminal fermentation to optimize glucose supply and minimize problems with metabolism of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) by the liver

Title: Protein and Energy Needs of the Transition Cow
Author: Gabriella A. Varga
Summary: Dry matter intake may be decreased 10 to 30% during the period three weeks prior to calving. The last 3 weeks prior to calving it is recommended that energy density should be in the range of 1.5 to 1.6 Mcal NEl/kg DM, CP in the range of 13-14%, NFC between 33 to 38% and NDF >32%. More information is needed regarding the metabolizable protein and energy needs of the fetus, placenta, fetal fluids, uterus and mammary gland during the dry period.

Title: Impact of Rumensin on the Health of the Transition Dairy Cow
Author: Todd Duffield
Summary: Rumensinâ administered in the transition period improves energy balance in early lactation. Improved energy balance reduces the risk of energy associated disease such as ketosis, abomasal displacement and retained placenta. The Rumensinâ controlled release capsule (CRC) has been studied more extensively than feed delivered monensin for its impact on health.  The Rumensinâ CRC ensures a consistent daily dose of monensin that is independent of variable feed intake fluctuations both before and after calving.

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Reproductive Management of Cows in High-Producing Herds
Author: Jeffrey S. Stevenson
Summary: Challenges facing high milk-producing cows limit their reproductive efficiency: interrelationships among body condition, DM intake, transition from the dry period to lactation, onset of normal estrous cycles, detection of estrus, and embryonic survival. Attention is required to details associated with diet formulation; feed bunk management; cow comfort in free stalls, holding pen, and milking parlor during extremes of temperature and humidity; proper hoof care; milking management and mastitis prevention; control of ovulation and estrus; and early nonpregnancy diagnosis.

Session II. Heifer Feeding and Management

Title: Growth Standards and Nutrient Requirements for Dairy Heifers – Weaning to Calving
Author: Robert E. James
Summary: Age and size at first calving has a large bearing on lifetime production and profit. Holstein heifers should calve the first time by 22 to 24 months of age weighing 550 – 600 kg. In addition to body size at calving, rate of growth during various times of the rearing period can have an impact on mammary development, and lifetime performance.

Title: The Advantages of “Accelerated Growth” in Heifer Rearing
Author: Mike Van Amburgh
Summary: Profitability of the heifer enterprise is an integration of our understanding of the biology of heifer growth and the management necessary to accomplish appropriate growth in the most timely and cost effective manner. The concept of accelerated growth has been receiving additional attention. Our definition of the concept involves a systematic approach to redefining nutrient requirements from birth and setting specific targets and goals from the day of birth that appear to more closely resemble “normal growth”.

Title: Heifer Management Programs for Large and Small Operations
Author: Robert E. James
Summary: The dairy heifer grower must produce a higher quality product (the heifer) at a lower cost than the producer. Cost control is achieved with close attention to feeding, labor efficiency and effective health programs. Quality is assured when the grower can document desired growth through effective performance monitoring programs and records.

Title: Calf Management: Improving Calf Welfare and Production
Author: Daniel M Weary
Summary: Calves kept with the cow for 2 weeks gain weight at more than 3 times the rate of conventionally reared (i.e. early-separated and fed milk at 10% body weight / day) calves. Calves fed as much as they want (ad libitum) drink about twice as much milk but gain weight at twice the rate of conventionally fed calves. Ad libitum teat-fed calves can be successfully reared in small  groups.

Session III. Housing, Equipment and Management

Title: Cow Flow: Impact of Management Changes on Group and Herd Size
Author: Barbara Dartt
Summary: Anticipating fluctuations in milking herd size is a key step to both projecting cash flow streams and managing quota. Accurately budgeting cash flow streams is important when determining the financial feasibility of an expansion. Purchasing large numbers of springing heifers or milking cows without associated youngstock means that additional cattle will need to be purchased to maintain herd size for at least two years. Accurately budgeting the timing and magnitude of these purchases is important to the financial feasibility of an expansion.

Title: Pricing Feed Ingredients on the Basis of their Nutritional Value
Author: Normand R. St-Pierre
Summary: In many instances, nutritionists, feed manufacturers, dairy producers and their advisor need an estimate of what a feed is worth on a nutritional basis to facilitate the formulation of balanced diets and the purchase of appropriate and price competitive feedstuffs. Up until now, all methods used shared common flaws. We derived a maximum likelihood method that uses composition and prices of all feedstuffs traded in a given market to estimate unit costs of nutrients and break-even prices of feedstuffs.

Title: Lighting – A Natural Way to Increase Milk Production
Author: P.A. (Paul) Wasney
Summary: Research in Canada, USA and elsewhere suggests that cows may produce more milk when lighting intensity (expressed in foot candles (FC)), in the housing facility for the milking herd is bright (16 – 20 FC), stays on for a continuous period of 16 – 18 hours, and is well distributed throughout the area. Typical increases in milk productivity can range from 5 to 16 per cent. Ongoing research also indicates cows need a daily dark interval of at least 4 hours and therefore continuous 24 hour lighting is not necessary or else the effect of improved lighting may be lost.

Title: Stall Design: Enhancing Cow Comfort
Author: Daniel M. Weary
Summary: Research on cow comfort examines cow preferences, stall usage, and  other factors including injuries and udder health. For example, cows prefer to lie down on softer surfaces, they spend more time lying down on softer surfaces, and use of softer surfaces reduces injuries to both front and hind legs. New Canadian research is beginning to provide a sound, scientific basis for recommended stall design.

Title: Healthy Livers Make for Healthy Cows
Author: Thomas R. Overton
Summary: Transition cows must exquisitely coordinate their metabolism to meet tremendous increases in nutrient demand during early lactation. These include adaptations in whole-body glucose metabolism and liver-specific adaptations relative to utilization of individual substrates for glucose synthesis. Mobilization of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from body fat during the transition period appears to present challenges to the capacity of liver to synthesize glucose, either directly or indirectly through impaired capacity of liver to detoxify ammonia to urea.

Session IV. Human and Animal Health

Title: Changing Consumer Demand for Dairy Products
Author: Katherine Loughlin
Summary: The consumer of the 21st century continues to evolve in terms of shopping, cooking and eating preferences and habits. This presentation will explore the impact of demographics and the changing consumer tastes and habits with reference to the potential impact on the dairy industry.

Title: Opportunities for Genetic Selection to Increase Milk Quality
Author: Dorian J. Garrick
Summary: The value of milk to the producer depends upon its true value and the payment system adopted by the industry. Altering the composition of milk by genetic means can be achieved by selection, crossbreeding and transgenic approaches. The impact of within-breed selection on the quality of milk is affected by the relative emphasis placed on milk quality compared to other attributes that comprise the selection objective.

Title: Production of Low Fat Milk by Diet Induced Milk Fat Depression
Author: J. Mikko Griinari
Summary: Biohydrogenation theory may represent the unifying theory that explains the basis of diet induced milk fat depression (MFD). Simple feeding strategy to depress milk fat, involving dietary supplementation with one or several CLA isomers, is available. Optimal feeding strategies using CLAs to induce MFD are yet to be defined.

Title: Conjugated Linoleic Acid Enriched Milk: A Designer Milk with Potential
Author: John A. Bell
Summary: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring component of ruminant milk fat with potent cancer-fighting properties. The concentration of CLA in bovine milk is strongly influenced by diet. Manipulation of the animal’s diet can result in a 10 fold increase in the concentration of CLA in milk. Consumption of CLA enriched milk could provide considerable benefits for human health.

Title: Is Antibiotic Use in Dairy Cattle Causing Antibiotic Resistance?
Author: T. A. McAllister
Summary: Antibiotics are important tools for managing disease in dairy cattle. Because of microbial evolution, use of antibiotics will invariably result in some degree of microbial resistance to antibiotics. Prudent use of antibiotics can reduce the risk and extent of microbial resistance. Antibiotics should not be used as a substitute for good management practices.

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Potential Of Biotech Crops as Livestock Feed
Author: Gary F. Hartnell
Summary: The ability to introduce DNA directly into crop plants enables a selective plant improvement process that promises to continue to enhance agricultural productivity as well as being environmentally sustainable. While biotechnology provides an important tool to help address many of these challenges, this tool must be effectively integrated with the best current agricultural practices that encompass the most productive and environmentally appropriate technologies around the world.

Session V. Environmental Stewardship

Title: Economic Factors Affecting Nutrient Balance on Dairy Farms
Author: Normand R. St-Pierre
Summary: The contribution of nutrition and management to reduction in nitrogen excretion while maintaining the total national supply of milk can be funneled through one or more of the five following routes: From a better definition and targeting of optimum allocation of inputs (i.e., operate at optimum), From increased animal productivity (reduction of 8% in national N excretion from a 25% increase in cow milk production), From an improved knowledge of the biology included (reduction of 8% in N excretion), From feeding larger herds with larger and more numerous pens (reduction of 8% in N excretion from feeding 6 groups vs. a one-group TMR), and From technical shifts (e.g., protected amino acids).

Title: Nutrient Management on Dairy Farms – Development and Application of the Cornell University Nutrient Management Planning System – a Case Study
Author: Mike Van Amburgh
Summary: With expanded knowledge and an increase in herd size to maintain profitability and economic sustainability, environmental sustainability has become as important an issue as profitability. With a greater emphasis on environmental issues, decisions become much more global, and the amount of information that needs to be accounted for can be overwhelming.

Title: Efficient Nutrient Management for Quality Forages
Author: Loraine Bailey
Summary: The highest yields and the best quality forages are produced on soils with high productivity capacity when plant nutrient, soil water and soil chemistry are optimum for plant growth and development. Legumes and grasses are heavy users of plant nutrients. Consequently, effective fertilizer management is a critical component in forage production, not only to improve financial returns, but also to maintain soil quality and reduce the likelihood of damage to the environment.

Title: Using Dairy Slurry for Sustainable Crop Production: Short Term and Long Term Effects
Author: Shabtai Bittman
Use manure as the main source of nutrients for your grass crops. Test manure for mineral N content with the Agros or Nova Meter. Apply manure with surface banding equipment such as the sleighfoot or Aerway SSD applicators. Apply manure at about two thirds of recommended rates of mineral N according to the Agros meter. Conduct test strips with contrasting rates of manure and/or fertilizer to compare response. Soil sample fields in Oct. for residual levels of nitrate, phosphorus and potassium.

Session VI. Future Dairy Policy, Home and Abroad

Title: Trade Liberalization and the Canadian Dairy Sector
Author: Danny G. Le Roy
Summary: The price and quantity supplied of raw milk in Canada is determined using a supply management system rather than the free interaction of supply and demand. The ability of the supply management system to realize dairy policy goals depends on: over-quota tariffs remaining high; minimum access levels remaining small; restrictions on raw milk supply. The next round of multilateral trade negotiations will expand minimum access and reduce tariffs.

Title: The Future of the Dairy Industry in Canada
Author: Robert Romain
Summary: There is now a strong
and irreversible trend towards increased market liberalization, i.e. the reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers. Policies that isolate the domestic market from international competition will increasingly be challenged. In fact, supply management in the dairy sector has already been challenged by the United States and New-Zealand. The decision of the WTO Panel was partly in favour of the complaining parties and adjustments to the marketing system had to be made.

Title: Future U.S. Dairy Policy: The Next Farm Bill
Author: Robert Cropp
Summary: For better than 50 years two federal programs have impacted farm level milk prices, the federal dairy price support program, which is national in scope, and federal milk marketing orders, which are voluntary and apply to about 70% of U.S Grade A milk supply. The two programs work together to provide some price stability and to enhance farm level milk prices.

Title: Recent Pre- and Post-Farm Gate Developments in the New Zealand Dairy Industry
Author: Dorian J. Garrick
Summary: The current system of dairy production in New Zealand is characterised by seasonal supply from a pasture-based diet. Most milk is processed and exported as commodity products to world markets. Dairy farm returns are subject to cost-price squeeze, necessitating many actions to maintain or increase profitability. Dairy companies and factories have merged to obtain economies of scale. Two companies now process over 95% of the milk.

Session VIII. Reproduction

Title: Synchronization of Estrus and Ovulation in Dairy Cows
Author: Jeffrey S. Stevenson
Summary: Management of the estrous cycle is now more practical than it was a decade ago because of our understanding of ovarian follicular waves. With availability of three gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) products and at least three prostaglandin products, the cycle can be controlled for timed artificial inseminations (TAI) with little loss in conception rate compared to inseminations made after detected estrus. Various systems are effective for programming first inseminations with or without some heat detection.

Title: Computerized Heat Detection
Author: John P. Kastelic
Summary: Conception rates are highest when cows are inseminated from 5 to 16 h after the first mount. The efficiency of visual detection of estrus is < 50% in most dairy herds and 5 to 30% of inseminations occur in cows that are not in estrus. Walking activity increases around the time of estrus and can be measured with a pedometer. Pedometers will detect 70 to 80% of cows that are in estrus. Pressure-sensing devices can provide efficient and accurate monitoring of mounting activity in cattle.

Session IX. Manure Management

Title: Impact of Intensive Livestock Operations on Water Quality
Author: Jim J. Miller
Summary: Estimates of manure production from 1992 census data showed that Alberta produced the largest quantity of cattle and hog manure, and British Columbia the largest amount of  poultry manure in Canada. Updated estimates based on 1999 and 2000 census data revealed that Alberta still produced the highest quantity of cattle manure, but Manitoba produced the most hog manure, and British Columbia the largest amount of poultry (layers) manure. Nutrients, soluble salts, pathogens, heavy metals and organic chemicals in the manure have the potential to pose a threat to water quality if the soil is used as an infinite sink.

Title: Odours from Intensive Livestock Operations
Author: Sean M. McGinn
Summary: Odour intensity associated with livestock facilities consists of a multitude of organic and inorganic compounds. Odorous organic compounds result from incomplete anaerobic  breakdown of manure; urea in urine is quickly lost as ammonia. Dispersion greatly reduces exposure to high concentrations but odour can still linger out to 1 km from a livestock facility. Management strategies can reduce odour and enhance the value of manure as a crop fertilizer

Title: Composting: An Alternative Approach to Manure Management
Author: Jerry Leonard
Summary: Composting is an environmentally viable option for dairy manure management, and may be carried out in a variety of ways ranging from simple, low cost, passive piles to  sophisticated, automatically controlled in-vessel systems.


Title: Cows with Cystic Ovaries Conceive Normally to Ovsynch and Timed A.I.
Author: Divakar J. Ambrose

Title: Pregnancy Rates after CIDR-Based Timed A.I. Using Gnrh or Estradiol Cypionate in Dairy Heifers
Authors: Divakar J. Ambrose, John P. Kastelic, Raja Rajamahendran

Title: Producing Conjugated Linoleic Acid Enriched Milk Through Practical Dairy Nutrition.
Authors: J.A. Bell and J.J. Kennelly

Title: Prediction Of Fertility Of Young Sires Using In Vitro Tests
Authors: G. Giritharan, P. Madan, K.M. Cheng, R. Rajamahendran

Title: Effects of Physically Effective Fibre on Chewing and Ruminal pH
Authors: Wen Z. Yang and Karen A. Beauchemin