Title: Integrated Dairy Farm Management
Author: Barbara Dartt
Summary: Small business owners are required to fill each of the three key roles necessary in any business: worker/technician, manager and leader/entrepreneur. Because many dairy producers are production oriented, they spend a majority of their time in the technician role, neglecting management and leadership roles. Transitioning to an emphasis on strategic planning is difficult, but can pay many dividends including improved quality-of-life, profitability and sustainability.
Session I. Management, Nutrition and Health
Title: Transition Cow Programs — The Good, The Bad, And How to Keep Them from Getting Ugly
Author: Thomas R. Overton
Summary: Transition cow management underpins production and profitability on dairy farms. Aggressive monitoring programs for fresh cows prevent cascades of metabolic disorders and improve profitability. We must “manage metabolism” of transition cows by maximizing dry matter intake and ruminal fermentation to optimize glucose supply and minimize problems with metabolism of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) by the liver
Title: Protein and Energy Needs of the Transition Cow
Author: Gabriella A. Varga
Summary: Dry matter intake may be decreased 10 to 30% during the period three weeks prior to calving. The last 3 weeks prior to calving it is recommended that energy density should be in the range of 1.5 to 1.6 Mcal NEl/kg DM, CP in the range of 13-14%, NFC between 33 to 38% and NDF >32%. More information is needed regarding the metabolizable protein and energy needs of the fetus, placenta, fetal fluids, uterus and mammary gland during the dry period.
Title: Impact of Rumensin on the Health of the Transition Dairy Cow
Author: Todd Duffield
Summary: Rumensinâ administered in the transition period improves energy balance in early lactation. Improved energy balance reduces the risk of energy associated disease such as ketosis, abomasal displacement and retained placenta. The Rumensinâ controlled release capsule (CRC) has been studied more extensively than feed delivered monensin for its impact on health. The Rumensinâ CRC ensures a consistent daily dose of monensin that is independent of variable feed intake fluctuations both before and after calving.
Title: Reproductive Management of Cows in High-Producing Herds
Author: Jeffrey S. Stevenson
Summary: Challenges facing high milk-producing cows limit their reproductive efficiency: interrelationships among body condition, DM intake, transition from the dry period to lactation, onset of normal estrous cycles, detection of estrus, and embryonic survival. Attention is required to details associated with diet formulation; feed bunk management; cow comfort in free stalls, holding pen, and milking parlor during extremes of temperature and humidity; proper hoof care; milking management and mastitis prevention; control of ovulation and estrus; and early nonpregnancy diagnosis.
Session II. Heifer Feeding and Management
Title: Growth Standards and Nutrient Requirements for Dairy Heifers – Weaning to Calving
Author: Robert E. James
Summary: Age and size at first calving has a large bearing on lifetime production and profit. Holstein heifers should calve the first time by 22 to 24 months of age weighing 550 – 600 kg. In addition to body size at calving, rate of growth during various times of the rearing period can have an impact on mammary development, and lifetime performance.
Title: The Advantages of “Accelerated Growth” in Heifer Rearing
Author: Mike Van Amburgh
Summary: Profitability of the heifer enterprise is an integration of our understanding of the biology of heifer growth and the management necessary to accomplish appropriate growth in the most timely and cost effective manner. The concept of accelerated growth has been receiving additional attention. Our definition of the concept involves a systematic approach to redefining nutrient requirements from birth and setting specific targets and goals from the day of birth that appear to more closely resemble “normal growth”.
Title: Heifer Management Programs for Large and Small Operations
Author: Robert E. James
Summary: The dairy heifer grower must produce a higher quality product (the heifer) at a lower cost than the producer. Cost control is achieved with close attention to feeding, labor efficiency and effective health programs. Quality is assured when the grower can document desired growth through effective performance monitoring programs and records.
Title: Calf Management: Improving Calf Welfare and Production
Author: Daniel M Weary
Summary: Calves kept with the cow for 2 weeks gain weight at more than 3 times the rate of conventionally reared (i.e. early-separated and fed milk at 10% body weight / day) calves. Calves fed as much as they want (ad libitum) drink about twice as much milk but gain weight at twice the rate of conventionally fed calves. Ad libitum teat-fed calves can be successfully reared in small groups.
Session III. Housing, Equipment and Management
Title: Cow Flow: Impact of Management Changes on Group and Herd Size
Author: Barbara Dartt
Summary: Anticipating fluctuations in milking herd size is a key step to both projecting cash flow streams and managing quota. Accurately budgeting cash flow streams is important when determining the financial feasibility of an expansion. Purchasing large numbers of springing heifers or milking cows without associated youngstock means that additional cattle will need to be purchased to maintain herd size for at least two years. Accurately budgeting the timing and magnitude of these purchases is important to the financial feasibility of an expansion.
Title: Pricing Feed Ingredients on the Basis of their Nutritional Value
Author: Normand R. St-Pierre
Summary: In many instances, nutritionists, feed manufacturers, dairy producers and their advisor need an estimate of what a feed is worth on a nutritional basis to facilitate the formulation of balanced diets and the purchase of appropriate and price competitive feedstuffs. Up until now, all methods used shared common flaws. We derived a maximum likelihood method that uses composition and prices of all feedstuffs traded in a given market to estimate unit costs of nutrients and break-even prices of feedstuffs.
Title: Lighting – A Natural Way to Increase Milk Production
Author: P.A. (Paul) Wasney
Summary: Research in Canada, USA and elsewhere suggests that cows may produce more milk when lighting intensity (expressed in foot candles (FC)), in the housing facility for the milking herd is bright (16 – 20 FC), stays on for a continuous period of 16 – 18 hours, and is well distributed throughout the area. Typical increases in milk productivity can range from 5 to 16 per cent. Ongoing research also indicates cows need a daily dark interval of at least 4 hours and therefore continuous 24 hour lighting is not necessary or else the effect of improved lighting may be lost.
Title: Stall Design: Enhancing Cow Comfort
Author: Daniel M. Weary
Summary: Research on cow comfort examines cow preferences, stall usage, and other factors including injuries and udder health. For example, cows prefer to lie down on softer surfaces, they spend more time lying down on softer surfaces, and use of softer surfaces reduces injuries to both front and hind legs. New Canadian research is beginning to provide a sound, scientific basis for recommended stall design.
Title: Healthy Livers Make for Healthy Cows
Author: Thomas R. Overton
Summary: Transition cows must exquisitely coordinate their metabolism to meet tremendous increases in nutrient demand during early lactation. These include adaptations in whole-body glucose metabolism and liver-specific adaptations relative to utilization of individual substrates for glucose synthesis. Mobilization of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from body fat during the transition period appears to present challenges to the capacity of liver to synthesize glucose, either directly or indirectly through impaired capacity of liver to detoxify ammonia to urea.
Session IV. Human and Animal Health
Title: Changing Consumer Demand for Dairy Products
Author: Katherine Loughlin
Summary: The consumer of the 21st century continues to evolve in terms of shopping, cooking and eating preferences and habits. This presentation will explore the impact of demographics and the changing consumer tastes and habits with reference to the potential impact on the dairy industry.
Title: Opportunities for Genetic Selection to Increase Milk Quality
Author: Dorian J. Garrick
Summary: The value of milk to the producer depends upon its true value and the payment system adopted by the industry. Altering the composition of milk by genetic means can be achieved by selection, crossbreeding and transgenic approaches. The impact of within-breed selection on the quality of milk is affected by the relative emphasis placed on milk quality compared to other attributes that comprise the selection objective.
Title: Production of Low Fat Milk by Diet Induced Milk Fat Depression
Author: J. Mikko Griinari
Summary: Biohydrogenation theory may represent the unifying theory that explains the basis of diet induced milk fat depression (MFD). Simple feeding strategy to depress milk fat, involving dietary supplementation with one or several CLA isomers, is available. Optimal feeding strategies using CLAs to induce MFD are yet to be defined.
Title: Conjugated Linoleic Acid Enriched Milk: A Designer Milk with Potential
Author: John A. Bell
Summary: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring component of ruminant milk fat with potent cancer-fighting properties. The concentration of CLA in bovine milk is strongly influenced by diet. Manipulation of the animal’s diet can result in a 10 fold increase in the concentration of CLA in milk. Consumption of CLA enriched milk could provide considerable benefits for human health.
Title: Is Antibiotic Use in Dairy Cattle Causing Antibiotic Resistance?
Author: T. A. McAllister
Summary: Antibiotics are important tools for managing disease in dairy cattle. Because of microbial evolution, use of antibiotics will invariably result in some degree of microbial resistance to antibiotics. Prudent use of antibiotics can reduce the risk and extent of microbial resistance. Antibiotics should not be used as a substitute for good management practices.
Title: Potential Of Biotech Crops as Livestock Feed
Author: Gary F. Hartnell
Summary: The ability to introduce DNA directly into crop plants enables a selective plant improvement process that promises to continue to enhance agricultural productivity as well as being environmentally sustainable. While biotechnology provides an important tool to help address many of these challenges, this tool must be effectively integrated with the best current agricultural practices that encompass the most productive and environmentally appropriate technologies around the world.
Session V. Environmental Stewardship
Title: Economic Factors Affecting Nutrient Balance on Dairy Farms
Author: Normand R. St-Pierre
Summary: The contribution of nutrition and management to reduction in nitrogen excretion while maintaining the total national supply of milk can be funneled through one or more of the five following routes: From a better definition and targeting of optimum allocation of inputs (i.e., operate at optimum), From increased animal productivity (reduction of 8% in national N excretion from a 25% increase in cow milk production), From an improved knowledge of the biology included (reduction of 8% in N excretion), From feeding larger herds with larger and more numerous pens (reduction of 8% in N excretion from feeding 6 groups vs. a one-group TMR), and From technical shifts (e.g., protected amino acids).
Title: Nutrient Management on Dairy Farms – Development and Application of the Cornell University Nutrient Management Planning System – a Case Study
Author: Mike Van Amburgh
Summary: With expanded knowledge and an increase in herd size to maintain profitability and economic sustainability, environmental sustainability has become as important an issue as profitability. With a greater emphasis on environmental issues, decisions become much more global, and the amount of information that needs to be accounted for can be overwhelming.
Title: Efficient Nutrient Management for Quality Forages
Author: Loraine Bailey
Summary: The highest yields and the best quality forages are produced on soils with high productivity capacity when plant nutrient, soil water and soil chemistry are optimum for plant growth and development. Legumes and grasses are heavy users of plant nutrients. Consequently, effective fertilizer management is a critical component in forage production, not only to improve financial returns, but also to maintain soil quality and reduce the likelihood of damage to the environment.
Title: Using Dairy Slurry for Sustainable Crop Production: Short Term and Long Term Effects
Author: Shabtai Bittman
Summary: Use manure as the main source of nutrients for your grass crops. Test manure for mineral N content with the Agros or Nova Meter. Apply manure with surface banding equipment such as the sleighfoot or Aerway SSD applicators. Apply manure at about two thirds of recommended rates of mineral N according to the Agros meter. Conduct test strips with contrasting rates of manure and/or fertilizer to compare response. Soil sample fields in Oct. for residual levels of nitrate, phosphorus and potassium.
Session VI. Future Dairy Policy, Home and Abroad
Title: Trade Liberalization and the Canadian Dairy Sector
Author: Danny G. Le Roy
Summary: The price and quantity supplied of raw milk in Canada is determined using a supply management system rather than the free interaction of supply and demand. The ability of the supply management system to realize dairy policy goals depends on: over-quota tariffs remaining high; minimum access levels remaining small; restrictions on raw milk supply. The next round of multilateral trade negotiations will expand minimum access and reduce tariffs.
Title: The Future of the Dairy Industry in Canada
Author: Robert Romain
Summary: There is now a strong
and irreversible trend towards increased market liberalization, i.e. the reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers. Policies that isolate the domestic market from international competition will increasingly be challenged. In fact, supply management in the dairy sector has already been challenged by the United States and New-Zealand. The decision of the WTO Panel was partly in favour of the complaining parties and adjustments to the marketing system had to be made.
Title: Future U.S. Dairy Policy: The Next Farm Bill
Author: Robert Cropp
Summary: For better than 50 years two federal programs have impacted farm level milk prices, the federal dairy price support program, which is national in scope, and federal milk marketing orders, which are voluntary and apply to about 70% of U.S Grade A milk supply. The two programs work together to provide some price stability and to enhance farm level milk prices.
Title: Recent Pre- and Post-Farm Gate Developments in the New Zealand Dairy Industry
Author: Dorian J. Garrick
Summary: The current system of dairy production in New Zealand is characterised by seasonal supply from a pasture-based diet. Most milk is processed and exported as commodity products to world markets. Dairy farm returns are subject to cost-price squeeze, necessitating many actions to maintain or increase profitability. Dairy companies and factories have merged to obtain economies of scale. Two companies now process over 95% of the milk.
Session VIII. Reproduction
Title: Synchronization of Estrus and Ovulation in Dairy Cows
Author: Jeffrey S. Stevenson
Summary: Management of the estrous cycle is now more practical than it was a decade ago because of our understanding of ovarian follicular waves. With availability of three gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) products and at least three prostaglandin products, the cycle can be controlled for timed artificial inseminations (TAI) with little loss in conception rate compared to inseminations made after detected estrus. Various systems are effective for programming first inseminations with or without some heat detection.
Title: Computerized Heat Detection
Author: John P. Kastelic
Summary: Conception rates are highest when cows are inseminated from 5 to 16 h after the first mount. The efficiency of visual detection of estrus is < 50% in most dairy herds and 5 to 30% of inseminations occur in cows that are not in estrus. Walking activity increases around the time of estrus and can be measured with a pedometer. Pedometers will detect 70 to 80% of cows that are in estrus. Pressure-sensing devices can provide efficient and accurate monitoring of mounting activity in cattle.
Session IX. Manure Management
Title: Impact of Intensive Livestock Operations on Water Quality
Author: Jim J. Miller
Summary: Estimates of manure production from 1992 census data showed that Alberta produced the largest quantity of cattle and hog manure, and British Columbia the largest amount of poultry manure in Canada. Updated estimates based on 1999 and 2000 census data revealed that Alberta still produced the highest quantity of cattle manure, but Manitoba produced the most hog manure, and British Columbia the largest amount of poultry (layers) manure. Nutrients, soluble salts, pathogens, heavy metals and organic chemicals in the manure have the potential to pose a threat to water quality if the soil is used as an infinite sink.
Title: Odours from Intensive Livestock Operations
Author: Sean M. McGinn
Summary: Odour intensity associated with livestock facilities consists of a multitude of organic and inorganic compounds. Odorous organic compounds result from incomplete anaerobic breakdown of manure; urea in urine is quickly lost as ammonia. Dispersion greatly reduces exposure to high concentrations but odour can still linger out to 1 km from a livestock facility. Management strategies can reduce odour and enhance the value of manure as a crop fertilizer
Title: Composting: An Alternative Approach to Manure Management
Author: Jerry Leonard
Summary: Composting is an environmentally viable option for dairy manure management, and may be carried out in a variety of ways ranging from simple, low cost, passive piles to sophisticated, automatically controlled in-vessel systems.
Title: Cows with Cystic Ovaries Conceive Normally to Ovsynch and Timed A.I.
Author: Divakar J. Ambrose
Title: Pregnancy Rates after CIDR-Based Timed A.I. Using Gnrh or Estradiol Cypionate in Dairy Heifers
Authors: Divakar J. Ambrose, John P. Kastelic, Raja Rajamahendran
Title: Producing Conjugated Linoleic Acid Enriched Milk Through Practical Dairy Nutrition.
Authors: J.A. Bell and J.J. Kennelly
Title: Prediction Of Fertility Of Young Sires Using In Vitro Tests
Authors: G. Giritharan, P. Madan, K.M. Cheng, R. Rajamahendran
Title: Effects of Physically Effective Fibre on Chewing and Ruminal pH
Authors: Wen Z. Yang and Karen A. Beauchemin