Session I. Motivating for Change

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Achieving Excellence in Dairying
Author: Gordie Jones
Summary: As today’s dairies expand, many of the tasks that were done by the owner are now done by employees. Making these tasks easy and enabling the employee to do the tasks alone are essential. Achieving excellence becomes a mission of motivation! With larger and larger dairies, dairymen often get lost in the details and miss how really simple a large dairy can be.

Title: 14,000 Kg and Beyond – Current Benchmarks and Future Challenges for Dairy Cattle Reproduction
Author: Paul Fricke
Summary: Reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle currently is suboptimal due to poor artificial insemination service rates and poor conception rates. The rate at which cows become pregnant in a dairy herd is called the pregnancy rate and is determined by an interaction between service rate and conception rate. Service rate (the percentage of eligible cows that are inseminated during a 21-day period) is poor due to inadequate estrus detection, poor expression of estrus behavior, and a high incidence of anovular cows during early lactation. Conception rate (the percentage of cows that conceive after a single AI service) is poor in lactating dairy cows due to a high incidence of embryonic loss during early gestation.

Title: Enhancing Profitability through Setting Strategic Feed Efficiency Targets
Author: Mike Hutjens
Summary: Feed or dairy efficiency reflects the amount of fat-corrected milk produced per unit of dry matter consumed with an optimal range of 1.4 to 1.6. Days in milk, age, growth, body weight change, forage quality, and environmental factors will impact feed efficiency values. Dairy managers should monitor feed efficiency as feeding and management changes occur on their farms to evaluate the impact.

Title: Using Feed Efficiency as a Ration Evaluation and Nutrient Management Tool
Author: Mary Beth Hall
Summary: Feed efficiency for dry matter intake or protein can give an idea of how well cows are using a ration. Unless the cow is losing body weight, higher efficiency means more feed is being converted to milk. Feed efficiency can be improved by reducing other demands for energy or nutrients such as excessive walking or standing, heat stress, cold stress, etc. A ration that is not  properly balanced or managed, including a ration that cause ruminal acidosis, decreases feed efficiency. Improving feed efficiency can reduce the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus excreted in the manure.

Session II. Cow Comfort: Designing good Environments for Cows

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Designing Better Environments for Dairy Cattle to Rest
Author: Dan Weary
Summary: Adequate rest is essential to maintain the health, welfare, and productivity of dairy cows. Good stall design is essential to allow cows enough time to rest. Hard flooring or lack of bedding in both free-stalls and tie-stalls reduces the time that cows spend resting and increases the time they stand in the stalls. Cattle spend less time lying down and more time standing with their front legs in free-stalls that are too narrow.

Title: Designing Better Environments for Cows to Walk and Stand
Author: Jeff Rushen
Summary: Lameness is one of the most serious ailments facing dairy cows, and inappropriate flooring has been implicated as a cause. Use of concrete flooring has been associated with increased hoof problems. Increasing both the softness and the degree of surface friction of the floor improves cow mobility and reduces the risk of injury from falls. Softer flooring in front of feed bunks can increase the time cattle spend close to the feeder and may increase feed intake.

Title: Designing Better Environments for Cows to Feed
Author: Marina von Keyserlingk
Summary: Creating comfortable environments for feeding is one important focus of current research within the UBC Animal Welfare Program. Lactating cows spend about one-quarter of their day at the feed bunk. Providing more space at the feed bunk increases feeding time and reduces competition among lactating dairy cows. Providing rubber flooring for the cows to stand on did not affect the amount of time they spent eating, but does increase slightly the time spent standing in this area.

Title: Designing Good Environments and Management for Calves
Author: Anne Marie de Passillé
Summary: Calves can be reared successfully in small groups with computerised milk and grain feeders. Calf growth and health is as good as in individual pens. Automated calf feeders greatly reduce labour and reduce weaning age. Calves do well on high milk intakes: growth, health and feed efficiency is improved. Increasing calves’ milk allowance is simplified by the computerised feeding system. Group rearing of calves with a computerized feeding system works best when calves have had adequate colostrum, groups sizes are small, crosssucking is controlled by allowing calves sufficient time to suck, milk allowance is adequate, and grain intake is encouraged by appropriate weaning techniques.

Session III. Dairy Farm Policy

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Regionalization vs. Globalization of the World Dairy Economy: Conflict or Complementarity?
Author: Philippe Jachnik
Summary: This communication addresses the issue of globalization vs. regionalization of the world dairy economy through international trade in dairy products on the one hand, through internationalization of dairy and food companies on the other.

Title: What Happens If There Is Progress On Multilateral Dairy Trade Negotiations???
Author: Tom Cox
Summary: The world dairy sector is heavily distorted by domestic and trade policies. The price support, border protection and surplus disposal policies in key OECD countries benefit their dairy producers by keeping domestic dairy prices above world market levels. Due to high domestic dairy prices, protectionist policies in OECD countries tend to generate surpluses of milk and dairy products. These surpluses are exported with considerable subsidy, depressing world market prices, inhibiting the potential for domestic milk and dairy production in developing countries.

Title: Working to Get Back on Track: An Update on the WTO Agriculture Negotiations
Author: Steve Verheul
Summary: Achieving a level international playing field is Canada’s primary objective in the World Trade Organization (WTO) agriculture negotiations. Canada is seeking the complete  elimination of export subsidies as quickly as possible, the maximum possible reduction or elimination of trade-distorting domestic support, and substantial market access improvements for all agriculture and agri-food products.

Title: Can the Canadian Supply Management System Survive with Some Producers Marketing Milk Only for Export – The Ontario Experience and Perspective
Author: Bob Bishop
Summary: Operationally you cannot have two milk production and distribution systems without creating resentment and conflict that will destroy one or the other system. Accommodating decisions/directions by OMAF, DFAIT, AGCAN, AFRAAT and DFO toward a small group of producers has caused a lengthy legal process, caused trade risk and put the very existence of the supply
management system in jeopardy.

Session IV. Maximizing the Genetic Potential of Your Replacement Heifers

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Accelerated Replacement Heifer Feeding Programs
Author: Mike Hutjens
Summary: A modified accelerated calf feeding program should be implemented on dairy farms. A specific milk replacer and calf starter are needed to achieve optimal frame growth and  performance. Health status must be monitored to ensure healthy calves and minimize stress. An aggressive feeding and management program must be maintained to ensure early growth  advantages are maintained after 12 months of age.

Title: From Birth to Puberty
Author: Michael Murphy
Summary: The calf should weigh over 80 kg at weaning and over 110 kg at three months of age. Special diets can help achieve this. The heifer must increase in body size, volume, as well as  weight for successful calving at 22 –24 months of age. It is possible to achieve this with good quality silage if specific protein needs are met.

Title: Strategies for Optimizing Reproductive Management of Dairy Heifers
Author: Paul Fricke
Summary: The overall goal of a replacement heifer program is to rear heifers to reach a desired age and body weight early so that they initiate puberty, establish pregnancy, and calve easily at a minimal cost. The economic advantages of using AI to breed dairy heifers exceed those realized when using AI exclusively to breed lactating cows. The rate at which heifers become pregnant after reaching puberty is determined by an interaction between service rate and conception rate. The primary reason for synchronizing estrus in dairy heifers is to facilitate use of artificial insemination.
New protocols for synchronization of ovulation and timed AI of dairy heifers are currently being developed.

Title: Milk Quality Programs for Heifers and Transition Cows
Author: Leo Timms
Summary: Mastitis in transition cows and heifers can be a major contributor to herd mastitis problems! The early dry period and last few weeks before calving are high-risk mastitis periods! A mastitis surveillance program based on SCC/ culture must be in place early postpartum! Prevention and treatment strategies must be organism based so cultures are critical! Prevention should focus on controlling or minimizing organism exposure, optimizing teat end health, and maximizing animal immunity.

Session V. Advanced Feeding Technologies

Keynote Speaker:

Title: The Silage Triangle and Important Silage Practices Often Overlooked
Author: Keith Bolsen

Title: Making the Most of Grass-Based Forages in Diet Formulation
Author: Michael Murphy
Summary: NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber) intake even for high producing dairy cows can be as much as 1.4 or 1.5 % of body weight if the quality of the fiber is accounted for and the ration is fully balanced with regards to rumen degradation. It is necessary to stimulate the entire rumen microbial ecology by supplying different carbohydrates to obtain maximum rumen degradation. It is possible to adapt dynamic principles of outflow and degradation to simple figures for use in the field.

Title: Evaluating Rations from a Whole Farm Perspective
Author: Mary Beth Hall
Summary: To properly evaluate a ration, you need to look at more than the ration formulation on paper. Appraise all things that can affect how well the ration is being used by the cows for  production. Change what you must to make sure that whole farm system supports healthy, productive cows.

Title: Feed Bunk Management to Maximize Feed Intake
Author: Keith Bolsen
Summary: Effective communication and teamwork between the feed caller, feed truck driver, feed mill operator, nutritionist, veterinarian, and even office staff are essential for a successful feed bunk management system on a dairy operation.

Session VI. Transition Cows

Title: Controlling Energy Balance in Early Lactation
Author: Mark McGuire
Summary: The determination of energy balance is normally calculated using energy in minus energy out, which includes many estimates that can impact the result. Cows can use energy reserves in early lactation to support milk production. Cows return to energy balance by 6 to 7 weeks in lactation. High producing cows will consume more feed than lower producing cows to meet their energy needs for greater milk production. Dry matter intake, not milk yield, is the driving force behind energy balance in early lactation. Milk production is not related to body condition score or use of body reserves.

Title: A Fresh Look at Feeding the Transition Cow When Using High Forage Diets
Author: Frank O’Mara
Summary: Cows on high forage diets may be in negative energy balance for several weeks before calving but they suffer a smaller decline in pre-calving dry matter intake than cows on diets including concentrates. If cows are in poor condition score (< 3.0 on a 5 point scale) approaching calving, some supplementary feeding in the close-up dry period is likely to benefit them in terms of milk production because the cow has increased energy reserves to use for milk production. If forage quality in the dry period is moderate or poor, some supplementary feeding in the close-up dry period is like to benefit cows in terms of milk production. There is no evidence that feeding large quantities of a bulky forage like straw in the close-up dry period has any subsequent positive effect on intake or milk production.

Session VII. Managing for Profitability

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Increasing Your Dairy’s Profits with a Proper Milking Routine
Author: Andy Johnson
Summary: Strip 2-3 squirts of milk from each teat. Predip teats and cover at least 90% of teat and make sure the predip is stays on for a minimum of 30 seconds. Wipe teats dry making sure to clean teat wall and teat ends. Attach unit to the cow’s teats 75-90 seconds after stripping. Post dip with effective product and get 90% coverage.

Title: Is a Dry Period Really Necessary?
Author: Mark McGuire
Summary: Most studies evaluating length of dry period are retrospective analyses of data with significant bias possible. New studies have shown that cows given dry periods of less than 40 d are
capable of producing similar milk yields in the next lactation. Cows can produce substantial amounts of milk right up to calving. A lack of a dry period does not alter milk production after calving in cows entering their 3rd or greater lactation. Use of bST improves milk yield in late and early lactation in continuously milked mature cows.

Title: The Environment and Mastitis Control
Author: Andy Johnson

Title: Greenhouse Gas Production from Dairying: Reducing Methane Production
Author: Frank O’Mara
Summary: Methane is 21 times more potent than CO2 as a greenhouse gas (GHG), and dairy cows typically produce 118 kg methane/year, which is over twice that produced by other non-lactating cattle. Evaluation of strategies to reduce methane production should consider the effects on total farm greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing productivity per cow will reduce methane emissions per kg of milk and total farm GHG emissions where milk production is fixed, although the effect on total farm emissions needs further clarification. A lower culling rate will reduce farm methane and total GHG emissions.


Title: The Effect of Freestall Maintenance on Cow Comfort
Authors: Michelle Drissler, Marek Gaworski, Cassandra B. Tucker, and Daniel M. Weary

Title: Effect of Forage Source on Requirements of Particle Size of Lactating Dairy Cows
Authors: Wen Z. Yang and Karen A. Beauchemin

Title: Animal Welfare: New Insight through Genomics Research
Authors: D. R. Glimm, J. Rushen, A. M. de Passillé, F. Dong, P. K. Chelikani, and J. J. Kennelly

Title: Increasing the Level of CLA in Milk Fat Has No Effect on the Sensory Characteristics of Milk
Authors: Bell, J.A. and Kennelly, J.J.

Title: Producing CLA-Enriched Milk Using Dairy Nutrition: Research Summary
Authors: Khorasani, G.R, N. Beswick, J.A. Bell, and J.J. Kennelly

Title: Gene Expression Profiling to Discover Genes Controlling Feed Intake in Dairy Cattle
Authors: D.R. Glimm, F. Dong, P.K. Chelikani, E.K. Okine, G.R. Khorasani, and J.J. Kennelly

Title: Tissue Distribution of Leptin and Leptin Receptor Gene Expression in Holstein Cattle
Authors: P.K. Chelikani, D.R. Glimm, F. Dong, and J.J. Kennelly

Title: Bioproduct Development: Combining the Wisdom of Nature with the Power of Biotechnology to Enhance the Healthfulness of Milk
Authors: D.R. Glimm, F. Dong, G.R. Khorasani, and J.J. Kennelly

Title: Evaluation of the Relative Efficacy of Feeding Processed (Ground) Oilseeds versus Feeding Extracted Oil for CLA Production
Authors: Kennelly, J. J., N. Beswick, and G.R. Khorasani

Posted in 2004, Abstracts, Keynote Speaker, Session I. Motivating for Change, Session II. Cow Comfort: Designing good Environments for Cows, Session III. Dairy Farm Policy, Session IV. Maximizing the Genetic Potential of Your Replacement Heifers, Session V. Advanced Feeding Technologies, Session VI. Transition Cows, Session VII. Managing for Profitability and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .