Session I. Motivating for Change

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Achieving Excellence in Dairying
Author: Gordie Jones
Summary: As today’s dairies expand, many of the tasks that were done by the owner are now done by employees. Making these tasks easy and enabling the employee to do the tasks alone are essential. Achieving excellence becomes a mission of motivation! With larger and larger dairies, dairymen often get lost in the details and miss how really simple a large dairy can be.

Title: 14,000 Kg and Beyond – Current Benchmarks and Future Challenges for Dairy Cattle Reproduction
Author: Paul Fricke
Summary: Reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle currently is suboptimal due to poor artificial insemination service rates and poor conception rates. The rate at which cows become pregnant in a dairy herd is called the pregnancy rate and is determined by an interaction between service rate and conception rate. Service rate (the percentage of eligible cows that are inseminated during a 21-day period) is poor due to inadequate estrus detection, poor expression of estrus behavior, and a high incidence of anovular cows during early lactation. Conception rate (the percentage of cows that conceive after a single AI service) is poor in lactating dairy cows due to a high incidence of embryonic loss during early gestation.

Title: Enhancing Profitability through Setting Strategic Feed Efficiency Targets
Author: Mike Hutjens
Summary: Feed or dairy efficiency reflects the amount of fat-corrected milk produced per unit of dry matter consumed with an optimal range of 1.4 to 1.6. Days in milk, age, growth, body weight change, forage quality, and environmental factors will impact feed efficiency values. Dairy managers should monitor feed efficiency as feeding and management changes occur on their farms to evaluate the impact.

Title: Using Feed Efficiency as a Ration Evaluation and Nutrient Management Tool
Author: Mary Beth Hall
Summary: Feed efficiency for dry matter intake or protein can give an idea of how well cows are using a ration. Unless the cow is losing body weight, higher efficiency means more feed is being converted to milk. Feed efficiency can be improved by reducing other demands for energy or nutrients such as excessive walking or standing, heat stress, cold stress, etc. A ration that is not  properly balanced or managed, including a ration that cause ruminal acidosis, decreases feed efficiency. Improving feed efficiency can reduce the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus excreted in the manure.

Session II. Cow Comfort: Designing good Environments for Cows

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Designing Better Environments for Dairy Cattle to Rest
Author: Dan Weary
Summary: Adequate rest is essential to maintain the health, welfare, and productivity of dairy cows. Good stall design is essential to allow cows enough time to rest. Hard flooring or lack of bedding in both free-stalls and tie-stalls reduces the time that cows spend resting and increases the time they stand in the stalls. Cattle spend less time lying down and more time standing with their front legs in free-stalls that are too narrow.

Title: Designing Better Environments for Cows to Walk and Stand
Author: Jeff Rushen
Summary: Lameness is one of the most serious ailments facing dairy cows, and inappropriate flooring has been implicated as a cause. Use of concrete flooring has been associated with increased hoof problems. Increasing both the softness and the degree of surface friction of the floor improves cow mobility and reduces the risk of injury from falls. Softer flooring in front of feed bunks can increase the time cattle spend close to the feeder and may increase feed intake.

Title: Designing Better Environments for Cows to Feed
Author: Marina von Keyserlingk
Summary: Creating comfortable environments for feeding is one important focus of current research within the UBC Animal Welfare Program. Lactating cows spend about one-quarter of their day at the feed bunk. Providing more space at the feed bunk increases feeding time and reduces competition among lactating dairy cows. Providing rubber flooring for the cows to stand on did not affect the amount of time they spent eating, but does increase slightly the time spent standing in this area.

Title: Designing Good Environments and Management for Calves
Author: Anne Marie de Passillé
Summary: Calves can be reared successfully in small groups with computerised milk and grain feeders. Calf growth and health is as good as in individual pens. Automated calf feeders greatly reduce labour and reduce weaning age. Calves do well on high milk intakes: growth, health and feed efficiency is improved. Increasing calves’ milk allowance is simplified by the computerised feeding system. Group rearing of calves with a computerized feeding system works best when calves have had adequate colostrum, groups sizes are small, crosssucking is controlled by allowing calves sufficient time to suck, milk allowance is adequate, and grain intake is encouraged by appropriate weaning techniques.

Session III. Dairy Farm Policy

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Regionalization vs. Globalization of the World Dairy Economy: Conflict or Complementarity?
Author: Philippe Jachnik
Summary: This communication addresses the issue of globalization vs. regionalization of the world dairy economy through international trade in dairy products on the one hand, through internationalization of dairy and food companies on the other.

Title: What Happens If There Is Progress On Multilateral Dairy Trade Negotiations???
Author: Tom Cox
Summary: The world dairy sector is heavily distorted by domestic and trade policies. The price support, border protection and surplus disposal policies in key OECD countries benefit their dairy producers by keeping domestic dairy prices above world market levels. Due to high domestic dairy prices, protectionist policies in OECD countries tend to generate surpluses of milk and dairy products. These surpluses are exported with considerable subsidy, depressing world market prices, inhibiting the potential for domestic milk and dairy production in developing countries.

Title: Working to Get Back on Track: An Update on the WTO Agriculture Negotiations
Author: Steve Verheul
Summary: Achieving a level international playing field is Canada’s primary objective in the World Trade Organization (WTO) agriculture negotiations. Canada is seeking the complete  elimination of export subsidies as quickly as possible, the maximum possible reduction or elimination of trade-distorting domestic support, and substantial market access improvements for all agriculture and agri-food products.

Title: Can the Canadian Supply Management System Survive with Some Producers Marketing Milk Only for Export – The Ontario Experience and Perspective
Author: Bob Bishop
Summary: Operationally you cannot have two milk production and distribution systems without creating resentment and conflict that will destroy one or the other system. Accommodating decisions/directions by OMAF, DFAIT, AGCAN, AFRAAT and DFO toward a small group of producers has caused a lengthy legal process, caused trade risk and put the very existence of the supply
management system in jeopardy.

Session IV. Maximizing the Genetic Potential of Your Replacement Heifers

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Accelerated Replacement Heifer Feeding Programs
Author: Mike Hutjens
Summary: A modified accelerated calf feeding program should be implemented on dairy farms. A specific milk replacer and calf starter are needed to achieve optimal frame growth and  performance. Health status must be monitored to ensure healthy calves and minimize stress. An aggressive feeding and management program must be maintained to ensure early growth  advantages are maintained after 12 months of age.

Title: From Birth to Puberty
Author: Michael Murphy
Summary: The calf should weigh over 80 kg at weaning and over 110 kg at three months of age. Special diets can help achieve this. The heifer must increase in body size, volume, as well as  weight for successful calving at 22 –24 months of age. It is possible to achieve this with good quality silage if specific protein needs are met.

Title: Strategies for Optimizing Reproductive Management of Dairy Heifers
Author: Paul Fricke
Summary: The overall goal of a replacement heifer program is to rear heifers to reach a desired age and body weight early so that they initiate puberty, establish pregnancy, and calve easily at a minimal cost. The economic advantages of using AI to breed dairy heifers exceed those realized when using AI exclusively to breed lactating cows. The rate at which heifers become pregnant after reaching puberty is determined by an interaction between service rate and conception rate. The primary reason for synchronizing estrus in dairy heifers is to facilitate use of artificial insemination.
New protocols for synchronization of ovulation and timed AI of dairy heifers are currently being developed.

Title: Milk Quality Programs for Heifers and Transition Cows
Author: Leo Timms
Summary: Mastitis in transition cows and heifers can be a major contributor to herd mastitis problems! The early dry period and last few weeks before calving are high-risk mastitis periods! A mastitis surveillance program based on SCC/ culture must be in place early postpartum! Prevention and treatment strategies must be organism based so cultures are critical! Prevention should focus on controlling or minimizing organism exposure, optimizing teat end health, and maximizing animal immunity.

Session V. Advanced Feeding Technologies

Keynote Speaker:

Title: The Silage Triangle and Important Silage Practices Often Overlooked
Author: Keith Bolsen

Title: Making the Most of Grass-Based Forages in Diet Formulation
Author: Michael Murphy
Summary: NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber) intake even for high producing dairy cows can be as much as 1.4 or 1.5 % of body weight if the quality of the fiber is accounted for and the ration is fully balanced with regards to rumen degradation. It is necessary to stimulate the entire rumen microbial ecology by supplying different carbohydrates to obtain maximum rumen degradation. It is possible to adapt dynamic principles of outflow and degradation to simple figures for use in the field.

Title: Evaluating Rations from a Whole Farm Perspective
Author: Mary Beth Hall
Summary: To properly evaluate a ration, you need to look at more than the ration formulation on paper. Appraise all things that can affect how well the ration is being used by the cows for  production. Change what you must to make sure that whole farm system supports healthy, productive cows.

Title: Feed Bunk Management to Maximize Feed Intake
Author: Keith Bolsen
Summary: Effective communication and teamwork between the feed caller, feed truck driver, feed mill operator, nutritionist, veterinarian, and even office staff are essential for a successful feed bunk management system on a dairy operation.

Session VI. Transition Cows

Title: Controlling Energy Balance in Early Lactation
Author: Mark McGuire
Summary: The determination of energy balance is normally calculated using energy in minus energy out, which includes many estimates that can impact the result. Cows can use energy reserves in early lactation to support milk production. Cows return to energy balance by 6 to 7 weeks in lactation. High producing cows will consume more feed than lower producing cows to meet their energy needs for greater milk production. Dry matter intake, not milk yield, is the driving force behind energy balance in early lactation. Milk production is not related to body condition score or use of body reserves.

Title: A Fresh Look at Feeding the Transition Cow When Using High Forage Diets
Author: Frank O’Mara
Summary: Cows on high forage diets may be in negative energy balance for several weeks before calving but they suffer a smaller decline in pre-calving dry matter intake than cows on diets including concentrates. If cows are in poor condition score (< 3.0 on a 5 point scale) approaching calving, some supplementary feeding in the close-up dry period is likely to benefit them in terms of milk production because the cow has increased energy reserves to use for milk production. If forage quality in the dry period is moderate or poor, some supplementary feeding in the close-up dry period is like to benefit cows in terms of milk production. There is no evidence that feeding large quantities of a bulky forage like straw in the close-up dry period has any subsequent positive effect on intake or milk production.

Session VII. Managing for Profitability

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Increasing Your Dairy’s Profits with a Proper Milking Routine
Author: Andy Johnson
Summary: Strip 2-3 squirts of milk from each teat. Predip teats and cover at least 90% of teat and make sure the predip is stays on for a minimum of 30 seconds. Wipe teats dry making sure to clean teat wall and teat ends. Attach unit to the cow’s teats 75-90 seconds after stripping. Post dip with effective product and get 90% coverage.

Title: Is a Dry Period Really Necessary?
Author: Mark McGuire
Summary: Most studies evaluating length of dry period are retrospective analyses of data with significant bias possible. New studies have shown that cows given dry periods of less than 40 d are
capable of producing similar milk yields in the next lactation. Cows can produce substantial amounts of milk right up to calving. A lack of a dry period does not alter milk production after calving in cows entering their 3rd or greater lactation. Use of bST improves milk yield in late and early lactation in continuously milked mature cows.

Title: The Environment and Mastitis Control
Author: Andy Johnson

Title: Greenhouse Gas Production from Dairying: Reducing Methane Production
Author: Frank O’Mara
Summary: Methane is 21 times more potent than CO2 as a greenhouse gas (GHG), and dairy cows typically produce 118 kg methane/year, which is over twice that produced by other non-lactating cattle. Evaluation of strategies to reduce methane production should consider the effects on total farm greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing productivity per cow will reduce methane emissions per kg of milk and total farm GHG emissions where milk production is fixed, although the effect on total farm emissions needs further clarification. A lower culling rate will reduce farm methane and total GHG emissions.


Title: The Effect of Freestall Maintenance on Cow Comfort
Authors: Michelle Drissler, Marek Gaworski, Cassandra B. Tucker, and Daniel M. Weary

Title: Effect of Forage Source on Requirements of Particle Size of Lactating Dairy Cows
Authors: Wen Z. Yang and Karen A. Beauchemin

Title: Animal Welfare: New Insight through Genomics Research
Authors: D. R. Glimm, J. Rushen, A. M. de Passillé, F. Dong, P. K. Chelikani, and J. J. Kennelly

Title: Increasing the Level of CLA in Milk Fat Has No Effect on the Sensory Characteristics of Milk
Authors: Bell, J.A. and Kennelly, J.J.

Title: Producing CLA-Enriched Milk Using Dairy Nutrition: Research Summary
Authors: Khorasani, G.R, N. Beswick, J.A. Bell, and J.J. Kennelly

Title: Gene Expression Profiling to Discover Genes Controlling Feed Intake in Dairy Cattle
Authors: D.R. Glimm, F. Dong, P.K. Chelikani, E.K. Okine, G.R. Khorasani, and J.J. Kennelly

Title: Tissue Distribution of Leptin and Leptin Receptor Gene Expression in Holstein Cattle
Authors: P.K. Chelikani, D.R. Glimm, F. Dong, and J.J. Kennelly

Title: Bioproduct Development: Combining the Wisdom of Nature with the Power of Biotechnology to Enhance the Healthfulness of Milk
Authors: D.R. Glimm, F. Dong, G.R. Khorasani, and J.J. Kennelly

Title: Evaluation of the Relative Efficacy of Feeding Processed (Ground) Oilseeds versus Feeding Extracted Oil for CLA Production
Authors: Kennelly, J. J., N. Beswick, and G.R. Khorasani


Keynote Speaker:

Title: Farm Animal Welfare in a World of Changing Expectations
Author: David Fraser
Summary: Cultural attitudes toward animals have been changing rapidly during the past 50 years. These changes have culminated in some remarkable and very recent developments in farm animal welfare. To prepare for such changes, the animal industries need certain services and resources to be in place.

Session I. Benchmarks for a Successful Dairy Operation

Title: The 100-Day Contract with the Dairy Cow: 30 Days Prepartum to 70 Days Postpartum
Author: James N. Spain
Summary: The dairy cow is undergoing numerous changes in endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, and physiological status as she prepares for calving and initiation of lactation. If the negative energy balance during transition becomes excessive, metabolic diseases such as fatty liver and ketosis can result. Intensive management of the nutrition, feeding system, and environment of the periparturient dairy cow reduces the odds of disease and increases the odds of success.

Title: Troubleshooting Nutritional Disorders
Author: Randy D. Shaver
Summary: Digestive disorders, sub-acute rumen acidosis and displaced abomasum, cause economic loss in dairy herds through treatment costs, production loss, and premature culling. Evaluate ration formulation, feed quality and physical form, feed delivery, bunk management, cow comfort, and animal performance parameters when troubleshooting digestive disorders. Herds with  inadequate feeding and management programs for transition cows are at an increased risk of developing nutritional disorders.

Title: Using Farm Records to Set Benchmarks on the Farm
Author: Sandra Stokes
Summary: Proper data assimilation allows farm information to be used in decision-making. Regular evaluation of key data can allow early intervention to problem areas. Peer discussion groups can provide comparisons of local data for benchmarking herd progress.

Session II. Health

Title: Direct Production Losses and Treatment Costs due to Four Dairy Cattle Diseases
Author: Alfons Weersink
Summary: The direct production losses and treatment costs at the herd level were: $2,421 for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), $806 for enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), $2,472 for Johne’s Disease (JD), and $2,304 for neosporosis in the Maritime provinces of Canada. Total costs at the industry level were $1,264,355, $641,061, $842,042, and $1,909,794 for BVD, EBL, JD, and neosporosis, respectively. The distributions for all diseases were positively skewed, implying that the average costs reported above were higher than what most farmers experienced. The largest effect on costs was due to milk yield effects.

Title: Alberta’s Johne’s Disease Control Program
Author: Chunu Mainali
Summary: Johne’s disease is an infectious, progressive and debilitating disease of livestock. An infected herd not only impacts production and trade but may also have potential link with Crohn’s disease in humans. Alberta Johne’s Disease Control Program is comprised of four integrated components: awareness and education; veterinary accreditation; Voluntary Johne’s Herd Status Program; and collaborative research.

Title: Can We Prevent Hoof Problems?
Author: Roger Blowey
Summary: Lameness remains a major problem in dairy cattle worldwide. In the UK the average incidence is around 50 cases per 100 cows per year, with much higher incidences being seen in some free-stall housed cattle. Because of its effect on subsequent fertility and production, the cost of a single case of lameness is estimated to be around £200 ($450 Canadian), although this will vary enormously from case to case depending on severity.

Title: Minimizing Lameness through Genetic Selection
Authors: Gordon Atkins and Jay Shannon
Summary: The cause of lameness is multi-factorial and includes conformation defects, nutrition, environmental stress, injury, and infection. Estimates of heritability for foot and leg disorders range from near zero to greater than 30%. Since bull proofs do not exist for foot disease traits, the next best approach for utilizing genetics to minimize lameness is the use of foot and leg conformation as an indirect selection tool.

Session III. Dairy Policy

Title: Who Benefits from Deregulated Milk Prices: The Missing Link is the Marketing Channel
Author: Ronald W. Cotterill
Summary: As I will show you today in this paper the degree of competition in the market channel structure determines to a large extent who benefit from deregulated milk prices. When one introduces the milk marketing channel to the problem one is faced squarely with a fundamental question of price transmission. What we mean by price transmission is captured by the following question: if one lowers the farm price through milk price deregulation how much of that decreased farm price will be transmitted forward to consumers?

Title: Industry View of Environmental Issues
Author: Carissa Itle
Summary: Producers must become increasingly aware of environmental regulations that can impact their way of doing business. In the U.S., recent federal and state initiatives have aimed at minimizing the environmental impacts of animal agriculture. In addition, many producer groups are developing voluntary, incentive-based programs to educate producers and assist them in making environmental management decisions.

Title: The Next Round of WTO Negotiations: What Is In It For Dairy?
Author: James Rude
Summary: A new round of World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations are underway with a schedule of tasks to be completed by 2005. To date, good progress has been made, but in order to meet the deadline for completion the U.S. Administration has to receive negotiating authority from Congress. Border measures, such as tariffs, are the biggest obstacle to liberalized trade in dairy products. Most large developed countries use a system of two-tiered tariffs to protect their markets. The system only allows limited access at preferential tariffs, while over-quota tariffs are often prohibitive.

Keynote Speaker:

Title: A Blueprint for Evaluating Feeding Programs
Author: Michael F. Hutjens
Summary: Dairy managers and cows make feeding changes on the farm. Some changes are intentional (such as reformulation of rations) while others “happen” (such as heat stress). The skilled manager, feed consultant, and veterinarian are continually evaluating and “reading” cows. Monitoring milk yield and components reflect nutrient balance. Feed particle size is critical for health and optimal production. Blood, milk, and urine measurements can identify metabolic risks. Feeding program economics are key to profitability.

Session IV. Reproduction

Title: The Future of Dairy Reproductive Management
Author: Matthew C. Lucy
Summary: Reproductive efficiency of modern dairy herds is declining. Greater milk production of modern dairy cows only explains a small percentage of the reproductive decline. Other factors including housing and reproductive management as well as the physiology and genetics of modern dairy cows are probably more important. Reproductive efficiency of modern dairy cows can be improved through attention to detail when using current reproductive methods, genetic selection of sires whose daughters have superior fertility, pharmacological control of reproduction, and the use of automated management systems.

Title: Managing Postpartum Reproductive Issues
Author: W. Ronald Butler
Summary: Negative energy balance during early lactation is the major nutritional link to low fertility in lactating dairy cows. Negative energy balance delays recovery of postpartum reproductive function and exerts carryover effects that reduce fertility during the breeding period. Animal health components (liver, uterus, mammary gland) affect reproductive performance. Feeding, nutrition, and health of lactating cows for improved reproductive performance begins in the transition period and continues through early lactation.

Title: Essentiality of Specific Fatty Acids in Reproductive Performance of High Producing Dairy Cows
Author: James N. Spain
Summary: High levels of milk produced by today’s dairy cows create a challenge in meeting the animals’ energy requirements during early lactation. The resulting negative energy balance impairs reproduction. Supplemental fats have been used to increase energy density of the diet with the intent of reducing the magnitude of the early lactation energy imbalance. Fats may play a more important role associated with reproduction through the function of essential fatty acids. It may be possible to use fat sources to supply specific essential fatty acids that will enhance reproductive performance of high producing dairy cows.

Title: Stress and Its Effects on Fertility of the Dairy Cow
Author: Hilary Dobson
Summary: It is important to identify the incidence of major stressors on each individual farm – these will vary from farm to farm. Some every-day events are stressful for cows. Lameness and bad calvings have significant effects on fertility. Mastitis is also painful and has a major economic impact. Try solving one problem at a time. Financial considerations will probably dictate your emphasis.

Session V. Forages – From Field to Milk

Title: The Importance of Forage Quality for Milk Production and Health
Author: Sandra Stokes
Summary: Forages are the foundation behind dairy rations and forage quality affects herd health and production performance. Quality forage supplies on the dairy don’t just happen. They are the result of a planned and executed forage management program.

Title: Choosing the Right Corn Hybrid for Silage
Author: William P. Weiss
Summary: Potential differences between corn silage hybrids in net dollar returns can be estimated using yield, NDF concentration, and in vitro NDF digestibility data obtained from yield trial summaries. Higher economic value should be assigned to hybrids with increased concentrations of NDF and energy. These are important nutrients in corn silage and are likely to differ between hybrids. Any differences in economic value of the hybrids must be compared to potential differences in production costs.

Title: Cereal Silage Options for Western Canada
Author: James H. Helm
Summary: Cereal crops provide producers with a lot of options that allow the producer to balance silage yield, quality, harvesting and storage. Producers must look at species, varieties and mixtures as ways of controlling silage quality. In monocrops, the stage of harvest should be at the soft-dough stage. In mixtures, the later maturing component at the soft-dough stage will give
highest yield and energy and if harvested when the earliest component is at the soft-dough stage, protein content will increase. Disease factors are important considerations. Rotate your crops and
varieties to guard against the build up of new diseases or disease races.

Title: Rumen Acidosis in Dairy cattle: Bunk Management Considerations
Author: Randy D. Shaver
Summary: Bunk management is a risk factor for sub-acute rumen acidosis (SARA). A myriad of errors in feed delivery and bunk management can occur on commercial dairies. Bunk management practices that promote feed sorting and slug feeding must be controlled to minimize the incidence of SARA. Cow comfort, her environment, and the formulated diet need to be
evaluated in conjunction with bunk management practices when investigating laminitis problem herds.

Session VI. Integrated Nutrient Management

Title: Nutrient Cycling and Attempts to Reduce Nutrient Losses from Farms in Maryland
Author: Richard A. Kohn
Summary: Nutrient management regulations are increasingly focused on mandating nutrient management plans and preventing runoff from manure storage and animal holding areas. Although most regulations have focused on manure management and fertilizer application, the most cost effective means to reduce nutrient pollution and comply with regulations is to improve production per cow and feed closer to requirements.

Session VII. Milking Management and Calf Feeding

Title: Increasing Milking Frequency
Author: Mark Varner
Summary: Milk yield increases by a fixed amount due to increased milking frequency, and not by some percentage of previous milk yields. Six times-a-day milking frequency from calving through six weeks postpartum results in not only increased production during the period of high frequency milking, but also in a significant carry-over during the remainder of lactation while milked three times-a-day.

Title: Passive Immunity in Newborn Calves
Author: James Quigley
Summary: The neonatal immune system at birth is naïve to the wide variety and types of pathogens present in the environment. Consumption of colostrum to provide circulating IgG prior to the cessation of macromolecular transport (“closure”) is essential to ensure healthy calves. There are a tremendous number of factors that may influence the absorption of IgG by calves; therefore, blanket recommendations for feeding one amount of colostrum to all calves is inappropriate.

Session IX. Management and Facilities

Title: A Case Study Farm; Visiting Ralph Rumen
Author: Michael F. Hutjens
Summary: Developing a plan when evaluating a feed program allows individuals to find weak areas in the dairy operation. Evaluating the milk production records (yield, components, and trends) provides an “early look” at potential problems. Observing cow behavior will rule in and out key problems. Obtaining input from other sources on the farm including the veterinarian, feed dealer/consultant, and foot trimmer will add to the plan and strategies.

Title: Planning for the Future: How Modernization Can Increase Your Farm’s Profitability
Author: Roger W. Palmer
Summary: The role of the dairy manager is to plan strategically and to direct resources in a way that leads to a profitable and sustainable dairy enterprise. Management is the process of decision-making and has three major functions: planning, implementation and control.

Title: Cow Facilities and Effects on Performance
Author: John F. Smith
Summary: Maximizing access to feed and water is a critical design factor. Selecting cow housing is a critical decision. Avoid just looking at initial investment cost of freestall barns. Stress should be minimized in the milking facility by limiting the time cows are away from feed and water. Avoid building bottlenecks into the dairy design that limit your ability to correctly group cows. Design your dairy to manage heat stress in the holding pen and cow housing.

Title: Dairying Together as a Family
Author: Bernard L. Erven
Summary: Dairying together as a family is challenging. It also has the potential of being extremely rewarding. Understanding the family business environment starts the process of success
with family labor. Several family business characteristics appear negative. The challenge is to take advantage of the significant strengths of family businesses while dealing with their inherent weaknesses.


Title: Efficacy of ECF Dipstick Test for Determination of Nonpregnancy in Dairy Cattle
Authors: J.D. Ambrose, B. Radke, P.A. Day, M. MacLean

Title: Feeding Behaviour of Dairy Cattle
Authors: L. Baird, T. DeVries, M. von Keyserlingk, D.Weary, J. Shelford, K. Beauchemin.

Title: Sole Lesions and Lameness in Dairy Cattle
Authors: Erin Bell, Frances Flower & Daniel Weary

Title: An Economic Analysis of Productive Efficiency in Alberta Dairy Production
Authors: Heather-Anne R. Grant and Scott R. Jeffrey

Title: Rumen Undegradable Protein from Grass
Authors: P. Groenenboom, J. Shelford, and S. Bittman

Title: Interregional Dairy Cost Efficiency Comparison: The Case of Alberta and Ontario
Authors: Getu Hailu, Scott Jeffrey and Jim Unterschultz

Title: Effects of Neck Rail Position on Dairy Cattle Behavior
Authors: Cassandra B. Tucker and Daniel M. Weary

Title: Dairy and Animal Science Electronic Executive Summaries (DASEE)
Author: Mark Varner

Title: Optimizing Particle Size of Dairy Cow Diets with the Penn State Particle Separator
Authors: Wen Z. Yang and Karen A. Beauchemin

Title: Bacteria Counts In Sand and Sawdust Bedding
Authors: Gosia Zdanowicz, Jim Shelford, Dan Weary, Cassandra Tucker


Keynote Speaker:

Title: Integrated Dairy Farm Management
Author: Barbara Dartt
Summary: Small business owners are required to fill each of the three key roles necessary in any business: worker/technician, manager and leader/entrepreneur. Because many dairy producers are production oriented, they spend a majority of their time in the technician role, neglecting management and leadership roles. Transitioning to an emphasis on strategic planning is difficult, but can pay many dividends including improved quality-of-life, profitability and sustainability.

Session I. Management, Nutrition and Health

Title: Transition Cow Programs — The Good, The Bad, And How to Keep Them from Getting Ugly
Author: Thomas R. Overton
Summary: Transition cow management underpins production and profitability on dairy farms. Aggressive monitoring programs for fresh cows prevent cascades of metabolic disorders and improve profitability. We must “manage metabolism” of transition cows by maximizing dry matter intake and ruminal fermentation to optimize glucose supply and minimize problems with metabolism of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) by the liver

Title: Protein and Energy Needs of the Transition Cow
Author: Gabriella A. Varga
Summary: Dry matter intake may be decreased 10 to 30% during the period three weeks prior to calving. The last 3 weeks prior to calving it is recommended that energy density should be in the range of 1.5 to 1.6 Mcal NEl/kg DM, CP in the range of 13-14%, NFC between 33 to 38% and NDF >32%. More information is needed regarding the metabolizable protein and energy needs of the fetus, placenta, fetal fluids, uterus and mammary gland during the dry period.

Title: Impact of Rumensin on the Health of the Transition Dairy Cow
Author: Todd Duffield
Summary: Rumensinâ administered in the transition period improves energy balance in early lactation. Improved energy balance reduces the risk of energy associated disease such as ketosis, abomasal displacement and retained placenta. The Rumensinâ controlled release capsule (CRC) has been studied more extensively than feed delivered monensin for its impact on health.  The Rumensinâ CRC ensures a consistent daily dose of monensin that is independent of variable feed intake fluctuations both before and after calving.

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Reproductive Management of Cows in High-Producing Herds
Author: Jeffrey S. Stevenson
Summary: Challenges facing high milk-producing cows limit their reproductive efficiency: interrelationships among body condition, DM intake, transition from the dry period to lactation, onset of normal estrous cycles, detection of estrus, and embryonic survival. Attention is required to details associated with diet formulation; feed bunk management; cow comfort in free stalls, holding pen, and milking parlor during extremes of temperature and humidity; proper hoof care; milking management and mastitis prevention; control of ovulation and estrus; and early nonpregnancy diagnosis.

Session II. Heifer Feeding and Management

Title: Growth Standards and Nutrient Requirements for Dairy Heifers – Weaning to Calving
Author: Robert E. James
Summary: Age and size at first calving has a large bearing on lifetime production and profit. Holstein heifers should calve the first time by 22 to 24 months of age weighing 550 – 600 kg. In addition to body size at calving, rate of growth during various times of the rearing period can have an impact on mammary development, and lifetime performance.

Title: The Advantages of “Accelerated Growth” in Heifer Rearing
Author: Mike Van Amburgh
Summary: Profitability of the heifer enterprise is an integration of our understanding of the biology of heifer growth and the management necessary to accomplish appropriate growth in the most timely and cost effective manner. The concept of accelerated growth has been receiving additional attention. Our definition of the concept involves a systematic approach to redefining nutrient requirements from birth and setting specific targets and goals from the day of birth that appear to more closely resemble “normal growth”.

Title: Heifer Management Programs for Large and Small Operations
Author: Robert E. James
Summary: The dairy heifer grower must produce a higher quality product (the heifer) at a lower cost than the producer. Cost control is achieved with close attention to feeding, labor efficiency and effective health programs. Quality is assured when the grower can document desired growth through effective performance monitoring programs and records.

Title: Calf Management: Improving Calf Welfare and Production
Author: Daniel M Weary
Summary: Calves kept with the cow for 2 weeks gain weight at more than 3 times the rate of conventionally reared (i.e. early-separated and fed milk at 10% body weight / day) calves. Calves fed as much as they want (ad libitum) drink about twice as much milk but gain weight at twice the rate of conventionally fed calves. Ad libitum teat-fed calves can be successfully reared in small  groups.

Session III. Housing, Equipment and Management

Title: Cow Flow: Impact of Management Changes on Group and Herd Size
Author: Barbara Dartt
Summary: Anticipating fluctuations in milking herd size is a key step to both projecting cash flow streams and managing quota. Accurately budgeting cash flow streams is important when determining the financial feasibility of an expansion. Purchasing large numbers of springing heifers or milking cows without associated youngstock means that additional cattle will need to be purchased to maintain herd size for at least two years. Accurately budgeting the timing and magnitude of these purchases is important to the financial feasibility of an expansion.

Title: Pricing Feed Ingredients on the Basis of their Nutritional Value
Author: Normand R. St-Pierre
Summary: In many instances, nutritionists, feed manufacturers, dairy producers and their advisor need an estimate of what a feed is worth on a nutritional basis to facilitate the formulation of balanced diets and the purchase of appropriate and price competitive feedstuffs. Up until now, all methods used shared common flaws. We derived a maximum likelihood method that uses composition and prices of all feedstuffs traded in a given market to estimate unit costs of nutrients and break-even prices of feedstuffs.

Title: Lighting – A Natural Way to Increase Milk Production
Author: P.A. (Paul) Wasney
Summary: Research in Canada, USA and elsewhere suggests that cows may produce more milk when lighting intensity (expressed in foot candles (FC)), in the housing facility for the milking herd is bright (16 – 20 FC), stays on for a continuous period of 16 – 18 hours, and is well distributed throughout the area. Typical increases in milk productivity can range from 5 to 16 per cent. Ongoing research also indicates cows need a daily dark interval of at least 4 hours and therefore continuous 24 hour lighting is not necessary or else the effect of improved lighting may be lost.

Title: Stall Design: Enhancing Cow Comfort
Author: Daniel M. Weary
Summary: Research on cow comfort examines cow preferences, stall usage, and  other factors including injuries and udder health. For example, cows prefer to lie down on softer surfaces, they spend more time lying down on softer surfaces, and use of softer surfaces reduces injuries to both front and hind legs. New Canadian research is beginning to provide a sound, scientific basis for recommended stall design.

Title: Healthy Livers Make for Healthy Cows
Author: Thomas R. Overton
Summary: Transition cows must exquisitely coordinate their metabolism to meet tremendous increases in nutrient demand during early lactation. These include adaptations in whole-body glucose metabolism and liver-specific adaptations relative to utilization of individual substrates for glucose synthesis. Mobilization of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from body fat during the transition period appears to present challenges to the capacity of liver to synthesize glucose, either directly or indirectly through impaired capacity of liver to detoxify ammonia to urea.

Session IV. Human and Animal Health

Title: Changing Consumer Demand for Dairy Products
Author: Katherine Loughlin
Summary: The consumer of the 21st century continues to evolve in terms of shopping, cooking and eating preferences and habits. This presentation will explore the impact of demographics and the changing consumer tastes and habits with reference to the potential impact on the dairy industry.

Title: Opportunities for Genetic Selection to Increase Milk Quality
Author: Dorian J. Garrick
Summary: The value of milk to the producer depends upon its true value and the payment system adopted by the industry. Altering the composition of milk by genetic means can be achieved by selection, crossbreeding and transgenic approaches. The impact of within-breed selection on the quality of milk is affected by the relative emphasis placed on milk quality compared to other attributes that comprise the selection objective.

Title: Production of Low Fat Milk by Diet Induced Milk Fat Depression
Author: J. Mikko Griinari
Summary: Biohydrogenation theory may represent the unifying theory that explains the basis of diet induced milk fat depression (MFD). Simple feeding strategy to depress milk fat, involving dietary supplementation with one or several CLA isomers, is available. Optimal feeding strategies using CLAs to induce MFD are yet to be defined.

Title: Conjugated Linoleic Acid Enriched Milk: A Designer Milk with Potential
Author: John A. Bell
Summary: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring component of ruminant milk fat with potent cancer-fighting properties. The concentration of CLA in bovine milk is strongly influenced by diet. Manipulation of the animal’s diet can result in a 10 fold increase in the concentration of CLA in milk. Consumption of CLA enriched milk could provide considerable benefits for human health.

Title: Is Antibiotic Use in Dairy Cattle Causing Antibiotic Resistance?
Author: T. A. McAllister
Summary: Antibiotics are important tools for managing disease in dairy cattle. Because of microbial evolution, use of antibiotics will invariably result in some degree of microbial resistance to antibiotics. Prudent use of antibiotics can reduce the risk and extent of microbial resistance. Antibiotics should not be used as a substitute for good management practices.

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Potential Of Biotech Crops as Livestock Feed
Author: Gary F. Hartnell
Summary: The ability to introduce DNA directly into crop plants enables a selective plant improvement process that promises to continue to enhance agricultural productivity as well as being environmentally sustainable. While biotechnology provides an important tool to help address many of these challenges, this tool must be effectively integrated with the best current agricultural practices that encompass the most productive and environmentally appropriate technologies around the world.

Session V. Environmental Stewardship

Title: Economic Factors Affecting Nutrient Balance on Dairy Farms
Author: Normand R. St-Pierre
Summary: The contribution of nutrition and management to reduction in nitrogen excretion while maintaining the total national supply of milk can be funneled through one or more of the five following routes: From a better definition and targeting of optimum allocation of inputs (i.e., operate at optimum), From increased animal productivity (reduction of 8% in national N excretion from a 25% increase in cow milk production), From an improved knowledge of the biology included (reduction of 8% in N excretion), From feeding larger herds with larger and more numerous pens (reduction of 8% in N excretion from feeding 6 groups vs. a one-group TMR), and From technical shifts (e.g., protected amino acids).

Title: Nutrient Management on Dairy Farms – Development and Application of the Cornell University Nutrient Management Planning System – a Case Study
Author: Mike Van Amburgh
Summary: With expanded knowledge and an increase in herd size to maintain profitability and economic sustainability, environmental sustainability has become as important an issue as profitability. With a greater emphasis on environmental issues, decisions become much more global, and the amount of information that needs to be accounted for can be overwhelming.

Title: Efficient Nutrient Management for Quality Forages
Author: Loraine Bailey
Summary: The highest yields and the best quality forages are produced on soils with high productivity capacity when plant nutrient, soil water and soil chemistry are optimum for plant growth and development. Legumes and grasses are heavy users of plant nutrients. Consequently, effective fertilizer management is a critical component in forage production, not only to improve financial returns, but also to maintain soil quality and reduce the likelihood of damage to the environment.

Title: Using Dairy Slurry for Sustainable Crop Production: Short Term and Long Term Effects
Author: Shabtai Bittman
Use manure as the main source of nutrients for your grass crops. Test manure for mineral N content with the Agros or Nova Meter. Apply manure with surface banding equipment such as the sleighfoot or Aerway SSD applicators. Apply manure at about two thirds of recommended rates of mineral N according to the Agros meter. Conduct test strips with contrasting rates of manure and/or fertilizer to compare response. Soil sample fields in Oct. for residual levels of nitrate, phosphorus and potassium.

Session VI. Future Dairy Policy, Home and Abroad

Title: Trade Liberalization and the Canadian Dairy Sector
Author: Danny G. Le Roy
Summary: The price and quantity supplied of raw milk in Canada is determined using a supply management system rather than the free interaction of supply and demand. The ability of the supply management system to realize dairy policy goals depends on: over-quota tariffs remaining high; minimum access levels remaining small; restrictions on raw milk supply. The next round of multilateral trade negotiations will expand minimum access and reduce tariffs.

Title: The Future of the Dairy Industry in Canada
Author: Robert Romain
Summary: There is now a strong
and irreversible trend towards increased market liberalization, i.e. the reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers. Policies that isolate the domestic market from international competition will increasingly be challenged. In fact, supply management in the dairy sector has already been challenged by the United States and New-Zealand. The decision of the WTO Panel was partly in favour of the complaining parties and adjustments to the marketing system had to be made.

Title: Future U.S. Dairy Policy: The Next Farm Bill
Author: Robert Cropp
Summary: For better than 50 years two federal programs have impacted farm level milk prices, the federal dairy price support program, which is national in scope, and federal milk marketing orders, which are voluntary and apply to about 70% of U.S Grade A milk supply. The two programs work together to provide some price stability and to enhance farm level milk prices.

Title: Recent Pre- and Post-Farm Gate Developments in the New Zealand Dairy Industry
Author: Dorian J. Garrick
Summary: The current system of dairy production in New Zealand is characterised by seasonal supply from a pasture-based diet. Most milk is processed and exported as commodity products to world markets. Dairy farm returns are subject to cost-price squeeze, necessitating many actions to maintain or increase profitability. Dairy companies and factories have merged to obtain economies of scale. Two companies now process over 95% of the milk.

Session VIII. Reproduction

Title: Synchronization of Estrus and Ovulation in Dairy Cows
Author: Jeffrey S. Stevenson
Summary: Management of the estrous cycle is now more practical than it was a decade ago because of our understanding of ovarian follicular waves. With availability of three gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) products and at least three prostaglandin products, the cycle can be controlled for timed artificial inseminations (TAI) with little loss in conception rate compared to inseminations made after detected estrus. Various systems are effective for programming first inseminations with or without some heat detection.

Title: Computerized Heat Detection
Author: John P. Kastelic
Summary: Conception rates are highest when cows are inseminated from 5 to 16 h after the first mount. The efficiency of visual detection of estrus is < 50% in most dairy herds and 5 to 30% of inseminations occur in cows that are not in estrus. Walking activity increases around the time of estrus and can be measured with a pedometer. Pedometers will detect 70 to 80% of cows that are in estrus. Pressure-sensing devices can provide efficient and accurate monitoring of mounting activity in cattle.

Session IX. Manure Management

Title: Impact of Intensive Livestock Operations on Water Quality
Author: Jim J. Miller
Summary: Estimates of manure production from 1992 census data showed that Alberta produced the largest quantity of cattle and hog manure, and British Columbia the largest amount of  poultry manure in Canada. Updated estimates based on 1999 and 2000 census data revealed that Alberta still produced the highest quantity of cattle manure, but Manitoba produced the most hog manure, and British Columbia the largest amount of poultry (layers) manure. Nutrients, soluble salts, pathogens, heavy metals and organic chemicals in the manure have the potential to pose a threat to water quality if the soil is used as an infinite sink.

Title: Odours from Intensive Livestock Operations
Author: Sean M. McGinn
Summary: Odour intensity associated with livestock facilities consists of a multitude of organic and inorganic compounds. Odorous organic compounds result from incomplete anaerobic  breakdown of manure; urea in urine is quickly lost as ammonia. Dispersion greatly reduces exposure to high concentrations but odour can still linger out to 1 km from a livestock facility. Management strategies can reduce odour and enhance the value of manure as a crop fertilizer

Title: Composting: An Alternative Approach to Manure Management
Author: Jerry Leonard
Summary: Composting is an environmentally viable option for dairy manure management, and may be carried out in a variety of ways ranging from simple, low cost, passive piles to  sophisticated, automatically controlled in-vessel systems.


Title: Cows with Cystic Ovaries Conceive Normally to Ovsynch and Timed A.I.
Author: Divakar J. Ambrose

Title: Pregnancy Rates after CIDR-Based Timed A.I. Using Gnrh or Estradiol Cypionate in Dairy Heifers
Authors: Divakar J. Ambrose, John P. Kastelic, Raja Rajamahendran

Title: Producing Conjugated Linoleic Acid Enriched Milk Through Practical Dairy Nutrition.
Authors: J.A. Bell and J.J. Kennelly

Title: Prediction Of Fertility Of Young Sires Using In Vitro Tests
Authors: G. Giritharan, P. Madan, K.M. Cheng, R. Rajamahendran

Title: Effects of Physically Effective Fibre on Chewing and Ruminal pH
Authors: Wen Z. Yang and Karen A. Beauchemin