Preface Advisory Committee Sponsors

Session I. Challenges and Opportunities for the Dairy Industry

Benchmarking: What the Top and Bottom Herds in Canada are Doing
Jean Brisson

The Impact of Lactation on Reproductive Performance
Bill Thatcher

Robotic Milking Systems ñ Are they the Way of the Future?
Jack Rodenburg

Session II. Itís All about Energy

What On-farm Energy Audits Can do for Your Dairy Operation?
Courtney Oishi

The Biofuel Industry and its Impact on Dairying and Feed Costs
Scott Wright

Using Wheat Distillers Grains in Dairy Cow Diets
John McKinnon

Maximizing Energy Utilization by Reducing Methane Production in Your Cows
Karen Beauchemin

Session III. Human Resource Management

Human Resources in a Growing Family Business
Bill Vanderkooi

Succession Planning for Your Dairy Operation
Murray Pituley

Attracting High Quality Employees
Bob Milligan

Labour Efficiency and its Importance in Profitability
Jack Rodenburg

Session IV. Optimum Nutrition for Optimum Production

Reducing the Variation Between Formulated and Consumed Rations
Bill Stone

Using Dietary Fats to Improve Reproductive Performance in Lactating Dairy Cows
Bill Thatcher

Challenges of Growing Corn Silage in a Northern Climate
Vern Baron

Avoiding Mycotoxin Production in Your Dairy Feeds
Lon Whitlow

Session V. Policy and Regulation

The Impact of AOPA (Agricultural Operation Practices Act) on Dairy Farm Expansion
Keith Wilson

Property Insurance for Your Dairy Operation – Are You Fully Covered?
Keith Peppinck

Adequate Liability Insurance is a Must
Gary Skogberg

Are You Losing the Right to Farm?
Keith Wilson

Session VI. Breeding and Genetics

Trends in the Canadian Dairy Cattle Improvement Industry
Brian Van Doormaal

Real Numbers: Functional Trait Impact on Dairy Profitability
Nate Zwald

Using Conformational Anatomy to Identify Functionality & Economics of Dairy Cows
Gordon Atkins

Session VII. Management Practices to Improve Cow Performance

Tracking the Cause of Death to Minimize Cow Losses
Bill Stone

Managing Anovulation and Cystic Ovaries in Dairy Cows
Walter Johnson

Making the Most of Your Dairy Rations Through Feed Bunk Management and Design
Trevor DeVries

New Approaches to Mastitis Prevention
Herman Barkema


Fenugreek Haylage and Dairy Cow Productivity
A.W. Alemu and L. Doepel

Fenugreek as Forage for Dairy Cattle
J.E. Montgomery, J.R King, and L. Doepe

Effects of Feeding Triticale Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles as a Protein Source on Productivity of Lactating Dairy Cows
M. Oba, T.D. Whyte, K.T. Wierenga, and G.B. Penner

Effect of Chloride-Enriched Timothy Hay on the Capability to Maintain Calcium Homeostasis in Dairy Cows
M. Oba, V. S. Heron, and G.F. Tremblay

Chloride-Enriched Timothy Hay Prevents Milk Fever
G.B. Penner, M. Oba, G.F. Tremblay, and T. Dow

Dry Period Diets Affect Postpartum Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows
M.G. Colazo, D.J. Ambrose, A. Hayirli, and L. Doepel

Increased Pregnancy Rates in Dairy Cows Following a Modified Ovsynch/TAI

M.G. Colazo, D.J. Ambrose, B.M. Gordon, R. Rajamahendran, and R.J. Mapletoft

Transcriptomic Analysis of In Vivo-Expressed Genes in Staphylococcus
Aureus During Bovine Mastitis

M. Allard, C. Ster, L. St-James, P. Lacasse, M.S. Diarra, C.L. Jacob,
and F. Malouin

Spermatozoal Transcriptome Profile as Marker For Bull Fertility and Spermatozoal Motility: A Potential Tool to Evaluate Semen Quality
N. Bissonnette, N., J.-P. Levesque-Sergerie, and G. Boissonneault

Automated Detection of Lameness in Dairy Through Measures of Weight Distribution
N. Chapina, A.M. de Passille, and J. Rushen

Effect of Feeding Essential Oils and Monensin on Fatty Acid Profiles of Milk Fat
M. L. He, W.Z. Yang, C. Benchaar, A.V. Chaves, and T.A. McAllister

Impact of Postpartum Milking Frequency on the Immune System and Metabolic Diseases of Dairy Cows
M.C. Loiselle, C. Ster, B. Talbot, and P. Lacasse

Selection for Longevity in Canadian Dairy Cattle
Asheber Sewalem and Filippo Miglior

Impact of Forage Proportion and Particle Length on Supply of Amino Acids
Wen Z. Yang and Karen A. Beauchemin

Development of Alternate Markers For Sub Acute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA)
N. Gakhar, S. Li, D.O. Krause, E. Khafipoor, K. Ominski and J.C. Plaizier

Effect of Alfalfa-Pellet and Grain-Pellet Induced Sub Acute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) on Feed and Water Intake, Milk Production, and Endotoxin in Feces and Rumen Fluid
N. Gakhar, S. Li, D.O. Krause, E. Khafipoor, K. Ominski, and J.C. Plaizier

Effects of Grain Induced Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) On Feeding Behaviour of Lactating Dairy Cows
S. Li, E. Khafipoor, D.O. Krause, and J. C. Plaizier

Effects of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) Induced By Feeding a Pelleted Diet on Feeding Behaviour of Lactating Dairy Cows
S. Li, E. Khafipoor, D.O. Krause, and J. C. Plaizier


Preface Advisory Committee Sponsors

Session I. The Past, the Present and the Future

The Western Canadian Dairy Seminar – The First 25 Years
John Kennelly

Nutritional Strategies of the Future
Mike Hutjens

Organic Dairying – Can It Work for You?
Richard Kersbergen

A Producerís Perspective of the Canadian and American Dairy Industry
Gordon Speirs

Session II. Nutrition Update

Management Practices to Optimize Silage Quality and Yield
Jane King

Advancements in Feeding Carbohydrates
Maurice Eastridge

Does Negative Energy Balance Limit Milk Synthesis in Early Lactation?
Lance Baumgard

Feed Additives – The Good, the Bad, and the Useless
Mike Hutjens

Session III. Dairy Farm Policy

Options for Supply Management in Canada with Trade Liberalization: Implications of Canadaís Dairy Sector
John Cranfield

Australian Dairy Market Deregulation: Coping with Policy Change
David Harris

Milk Protein Ingredients in Canada: A Perspective
Pierre Doyle

Session IV. Cow Health

Prevention of Postpartum Uterine Disease
Stephen LeBlanc

Laminitis – Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Pieter Kloosterman

Automated Detection of Lameness in Dairy Cows
Mark Varner

Johne’s Disease in Alberta
Hernan Ortegon

Session V. Reproductive Management

Profitable Reproductive Management of High-Producing Dairy Herds
Richard Pursley

Economics of Improving Reproductive Performance in Dairy Herds
Stephen LeBlanc

Current Status and Applications of New Embryo Technologies in Dairy Herd Management
Peter Hansen

Reproductive Status of Dairy Herds in Alberta: A Closer Look
Divakar Ambrose

Session VI. Focus on the Calf

Passive Immunity in Newborn Calves
Jim Quigley

Pasteurization of Non-Saleable Milk and Colostrum
Sandra Godden

Keeping Your Calves Healthy
Ken Leslie

On-Farm Calf-Rearing Techniques to Minimize Death Loss
Cathy Speirs

Session VII. The Cow and Her Environment

Developing Biosecurity Programs for Dairy Herds
Sandra Godden

Hidden Factors Affecting Fertility
Peter Hansen

Whole Farm Nitrogen and Phosphorus Management
Grant Clark

The “On-The-Dairy Self-Evaluation Guide”
Mark Varner


Barley Grain Feeding in Lactating Dairy Cows
L. Doepel, T.D. Whyte, B.N. Ametaj, and A. Hayirli

Potential of Fenugreek as Forage for Dairy Cattle
J.E. Montgomery, J.R King, and L. Doepel

Does the Form of Diet and Method of Feeding Influence Milk CLA Content?
R. Mohammed, D.R. Glimm, M. OíDonovan, C.S. Stanton, J.J. Kennelly, J.F. Mee and J.J. Murphy

The Occurrence and Severity of Ruminal Acidosis Surrounding Calving
G.B. Penner, K.A. Beauchemin, and T. Mutsvangwa

Ruminal Acidosis in Dairy Cows: Balancing Physically Effective Fiber with Starch Availability
Karen A. Beauchemin

When Do Dairy Cows Sort Their TMR?
Wen Z. Yang and Karen A. Beauchemin

Essential Oils and Monensin Affect Ruminal Digestion and Milk Fat Yield of Dairy Cows
W. Z. Yang, C. Benchaar, A. V. Chaves, M. L. He, and T. A. McAllister

Effect of Planting Date on Starch Accumulation of Whole Crop Barley
L. McKeown, M.A. Bal, M. Oba, V. S. Baron

Planting Date May Affect Yield and Nutrient Composition of Whole-plant Small-grain Forages
L. Manson, M. A. Bal, M. Oba, and V. S. Baron

Lower Dietary Crude Protein May Increase Glucose Utilization in Ruminant Intestinal Mucosa
Prajwal R. Regmi, Walter T. Dixon and Masahito Oba

Reduced Pregnancy Losses in Dairy Cows Fed Flaxseed
D.J. Ambrose, C.T. Estill, R. Rajamahendran, M.G. Colazo, J.P. Kastelic, M. Gordon, R. Corbett, N. Dinn3, D. Veira

Transcriptomic Analysis of Staphylococcus Aureus Virulence and Iron-Regulated Genes during Bovine Mastitis
M. Allard, C. Ster, C. L. Jacob, H. Moisan, P. Lacasse, M. S. Diarra, and F. Malouin

Evaluation of a New Antigen for Vaccination against Staphyloccoccus Aureus Causing Bovine Mastitis
C. Ster, F. Beaudoin, M. Jacques, F. Malouin, M. S. Diarra, P. Lacasse

International Standards for Transporting Cattle and Their Effect on Animal Welfare
David Val-Laillet, Mohammad Shah, Gosia Zobel, Karen Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Anne Marie de Passillé and Jeff Rushen

Feeding Behaviour and Response to Weaning of Calves Fed Limited or Ad Libitum Milk Using an Automated Feeding System
Borderas, T.F., J. P. Rushen, and A.M.B. de Pasillé

Soft, High-Friction Flooring Improves Gait of Cows With and Without Sole Ulcers
F. C. Flower, A. M. de Passillé, D. M. Weary, D. J. Sanderson, and J. Rushen


Preface Advisory Committee Sponsors

Session I. Getting the Most Out of Your Cows

Managing the Dairy Farm: Key Performance Indicators
Tom Fuhrmann

Feeding Dairy Cows for Longevity
Randy Shaver

Feed Efficiency: Its Economic Impact In Lactating Dairy Cows
Jim Linn

Genetics of Longevity and Productive Life
Kent Weigel

Session II. Feeding and Management

Minimizing Subclinical Metabolic Diseases in Dairy Cows
Todd Duffield

Challenges in Protein Nutrition for Dairy Cows
Lorraine Doepel

Assessing and Adjusting the Energy Value of Feeds
Bill Weiss

New Forage Options for Western Canada
Surya Acharya

Session III. The Business of Dairying

Motivating Employees
Tom Fuhrmann

An Integrated Precision Production and Environmental Management Analysis of a Kentucky Dairy Farm
Carl Dillon

Product Quality in the Canadian Dairy Industry
Kathy Baylis

Session IV. Lessons Learned on Farm

Marginal Thinking: Making Money on a Dairy Farm
Steve Eicker

Feeding Practices of High-Producing Herds: What Can We Learn?
Herb Bucholtz

Benchmarking High Producing Herds
Randy Shaver

Challenges Facing the Dairy Industry Today
Carl Loewith

Session V. Water, Vitamins and Minerals

Water, the Forgotten Nutrient
Vern Osborne

Meeting the Mineral Needs of Dairy Cows
Mike Socha

Impact of Minerals in Water on Dairy Cows
Jim Linn

Are Your Cows Getting the Vitamins They Need?
Bill Weiss

Session VI. Health and Management

Controlling Inbreeding in Modern Dairy Breeding Programs
Kent Weigel

Mastitis: The Canadian Perspective
Richard Olde Riekerink

The Role of Hygiene in Efficient Milking
Pamela Ruegg

On-Farm Carcass Disposal Options for Dairies
Kim Stanford

Session VII. Milking Management

Planning and Starting a New Milking Parlour: Software to Estimate Milking Center Costs and Performance
Doug Reinemann

The Seven Habits of Highly Successful Milking Routines
Pamela Ruegg

Tools for Milk Quality
Ralph Farnsworth

Canadian Quality Milk Program – An Update
Nicole Sillet


Effect of Wheat Supplementation on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows
L. Doepel, A. Cox, and A. Hayirli

Effect of Dietary Wheat Supplementation on Dairy Cow Performance Is Not Influenced By the Addition of Rumen Buffers
L. Doepel and A. Cox

Harvesting the Health Promise of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)
Vince Ohama, CLA Network Manager, Bruce Beattie, CLA Network Chair

Effect of Grain Source on the Requirements of Dairy Cows for Physically Effective Fibre
Wen Z. Yang and Karen A. Beauchemin

Benefits of Managing Methane Emissions from Dairy Cows
Sean M. McGinn and Karen A. Beauchemin

Feed intake, Digestion, Milk Production, and Milk Composition in Dairy Cows Fed Natural Plant Extracts.
C. Benchaar

Effect Of Post-Ruminal Supply Of Amino Acids On Feed Intake And Milk Production Of Lactating Dairy Cows
T. Whyte, A. Hayirli, H. Lapierre, and L. Doepel

Effects of Timing of Feed Delivery on Daily Rhythms in Glucose and Insulin in Blood Plasma and Glucose Tolerance in Dairy Cows
Furedi, C.J., Kennedy, A.D., Nikkhah, A. Plaizier, J.C

Could Luteotropic Agents Prevent Or Delay The Effect Of Prostaglandin F2 In Cattle?
D. J. Ambrose, G. Thangavelu, M. G. Colazo, L. A. Goonewardene

Fertility Profile Determination in Bovine Spermatozoa: Marker Linked To NRR
Claudia Lalancette, Catherine Thibault and Nathalie Bissonnette

Feed Stalls Affect the Social and Feeding Behaviour of Lactating Dairy Cows
T. J. DeVries and M. A. G. von Keyserlingk

Use of a Local Anaesthetic to Validate Two Measures of Lameness in Dairy Cows.
Jeffrey Rushen, Emilie Pombourcq and Anne Marie de Passillé


Preface Advisory Committee Sponsors

Session I. New Perspectives on Feeding Cows

Keynote Speaker: Making Cents Out Of Research: From the Lab Bench to the Farm Gate
Jim Spain

New Concepts in Nutritional Management of Dry Cows
Jim Drackley

Is There A Place For Short Dry Periods For High Producing Herds?
Tom Overton

Relationships of Negative Energy Balance with Fertility
Ron Butler

Session II. Policy and Marketing

Value-Added Pros and Cons: Can Producers Profit from High-CLA Milk and Dairy Products?
Leigh Maynard

Canadian Regulation of Functional Foods
Susan Lutz

Dairy Products and Consumer Demand for Health Foods
Sean Cash

Session III. Health and Wellness

Keynote Speaker: Control Programs for Johne’s Disease
Huybert Groenendaal

A New Understanding of the Causes of Fatty Liver in Dairy Cows
Burim Ametaj

Extended Lactation: Turning Theory into Reality
Chris Knight

Preventing and Treating Lameness
Roger Blowey

Session IV. Re-thinking Reproduction Issues

Keynote Speaker: Overall Reproductive Performance of Canadian Dairy Cows: Challenges We Are Facing
Stephen LeBlanc

Second Insemination Breeding Strategies for Dairy Cows
Matt Lucy

Relationships of Dietary Protein and Fertility
Ron Butler

Implementing a Nutritional Management Plan to Enhance Fertility
Jim Spain

Session V. Modern Concepts in Heifer Rearing

Keynote Speaker: Rumen Development in the Dairy Calf
Jud Heinrichs

Does Early Growth Affect Subsequent Health and Performance of Heifers?
Jim Drackley

Designing Heifer Systems That Work On Your Farm
Tom Overton

Raising Johne’s-Free Calves
Jocelyn Jansen

Session VI. Emerging Issue

Keynote Speaker: Monitoring and Mitigation of E. coli O157:H7 in Commercial Dairies
Tim McAllister

Session VI. Feeding for Milk Composition

The Demand for Milk Components
Nelson Coyle

Nutrition as a Tool to Alter Milk Composition
John Kennelly

Keynote Speaker: Implications of Fat-Feeding Practices for Lactating Dairy Cows – Effects on Milk Fat
Charles Staples

Session VII. Managing for Profitability

Keynote Speaker: Balancing High Production and Health of Cows
Roger Blowey

Fertility Traits in New Zealand vs. North American Holsteins
Matt Lucy

Using DHI Records On-Farm to Evaluate Reproductive Performance
Stephen LeBlanc

Making Informed Culling Decisions
Huybert Groenendaal


Mechanical Processing of Barley Silage for Lactating Dairy Cows
J.-S. Eun, K. A. Beauchemin, and W. Z. Yang

Dairy Cows Sort Their TMR
Wen Z. Yang and Karen A. Beauchemin

Physically Effective Fibre Content of Dairy Diets and the Risk of Ruminal Acidosis
Wen Z. Yang and Karen A. Beauchemin

Effect of Feeding Frequency on the Quality of TMR Available Throughout the Day
T. J. DeVries, M. A. G. von Keyserlingk, and K. A. Beauchemin

Drinking and Competitive Behaviour of Dairy Calves Following Introduction into a Group Pen
Keelin O’Driscoll, M. A. G. von Keyserlingk, and D. M. Weary

Effects of Diet and Time of Feeding on Productivity, Rumen pH, and Blood Metabolites of Lactating Dairy Cows
A. Nikkhah, C. Furedi, J. Plaizier, and A. Kennedy

Development of Holstein Heifers from In vivo or In vitro Produced Embryos Transferred to Beef Cattle
B. A. Sawatzky, J. A. Small, A. D. Kennedy, J. D. Ambrose and K. M. Wittenberg

Understanding Variation in Milk CLA Content: Development of Techniques to Characterize Diet-Induced Changes in Rumen Microbial Profiles
R. Mohammed, D.R. Glimm, G.W. Tannock, R.J. Forster, C. Stanton, and J.J. Kennelly

Effect of Feeding Ground versus Whole Safflower Seed and Safflower Oil on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Cows
R. Mohammed, D. Lee, E. Tong, S. Parmley, G. R. Khorasani and L. Doepel

Effect of Sunflower Oil Delivery Method on Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content in Milk
G. McGregor, A. Meszaros, Y. Parrott, S. Tam, M. Oba, and L. Doepel

Ruminal Fermentation of Processed and Heat-treated Sunflower Seeds
A.R. Kroeker and D. A. Christensen

Nutritive Value of Whole Raw and Roasted Sunflowers for High Producing Dairy Cows
A.R. Kroeker and D. A. Christensen

The Effect of Monensin and Sodium Bicarbonate on Milk Yield and Composition
C. Dary, M. Harris, N. Koppe, T. Ritson-Bennett, R. Khorasani, and L. Doepel

Comparison of Activity Partitioning in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd/4th Lactation Dairy Cows
C. Beck, K. Chorna, K. Nichiporik, C. Riczu, J. Feddes, and L. Doepel

Do Heifers at Different Stages of the Estrous Cycle Respond Differently to Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Treatment
B. Kumpula, F. Salmon, P. Suddaby, S. Terletski, J.D. Ambrose, and L. Doepel

Progesterone (CIDR) Device-Based Timed AI Protocols for Dairy Heifers
J.D. Ambrose, P.A. Day1, and J.P. Kastelic

Electronic or Visual Detection of Estrus versus Timed-AI
J.D. Ambrose, J.P. Kastelic, P.A. Day, R. Wilde, and J.A. Small

Comparing Timed AI to Electronic Estrus Detection in Holstein Heifers
J.D. Ambrose, P.A. Day, and J.A. Small

Conception Rates in Dairy Cows Given Prostaglandin at Insemination
J.D. Ambrose and J.P. Kastelic


Session I. Motivating for Change

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Achieving Excellence in Dairying
Author: Gordie Jones
Summary: As today’s dairies expand, many of the tasks that were done by the owner are now done by employees. Making these tasks easy and enabling the employee to do the tasks alone are essential. Achieving excellence becomes a mission of motivation! With larger and larger dairies, dairymen often get lost in the details and miss how really simple a large dairy can be.

Title: 14,000 Kg and Beyond – Current Benchmarks and Future Challenges for Dairy Cattle Reproduction
Author: Paul Fricke
Summary: Reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle currently is suboptimal due to poor artificial insemination service rates and poor conception rates. The rate at which cows become pregnant in a dairy herd is called the pregnancy rate and is determined by an interaction between service rate and conception rate. Service rate (the percentage of eligible cows that are inseminated during a 21-day period) is poor due to inadequate estrus detection, poor expression of estrus behavior, and a high incidence of anovular cows during early lactation. Conception rate (the percentage of cows that conceive after a single AI service) is poor in lactating dairy cows due to a high incidence of embryonic loss during early gestation.

Title: Enhancing Profitability through Setting Strategic Feed Efficiency Targets
Author: Mike Hutjens
Summary: Feed or dairy efficiency reflects the amount of fat-corrected milk produced per unit of dry matter consumed with an optimal range of 1.4 to 1.6. Days in milk, age, growth, body weight change, forage quality, and environmental factors will impact feed efficiency values. Dairy managers should monitor feed efficiency as feeding and management changes occur on their farms to evaluate the impact.

Title: Using Feed Efficiency as a Ration Evaluation and Nutrient Management Tool
Author: Mary Beth Hall
Summary: Feed efficiency for dry matter intake or protein can give an idea of how well cows are using a ration. Unless the cow is losing body weight, higher efficiency means more feed is being converted to milk. Feed efficiency can be improved by reducing other demands for energy or nutrients such as excessive walking or standing, heat stress, cold stress, etc. A ration that is not  properly balanced or managed, including a ration that cause ruminal acidosis, decreases feed efficiency. Improving feed efficiency can reduce the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus excreted in the manure.

Session II. Cow Comfort: Designing good Environments for Cows

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Designing Better Environments for Dairy Cattle to Rest
Author: Dan Weary
Summary: Adequate rest is essential to maintain the health, welfare, and productivity of dairy cows. Good stall design is essential to allow cows enough time to rest. Hard flooring or lack of bedding in both free-stalls and tie-stalls reduces the time that cows spend resting and increases the time they stand in the stalls. Cattle spend less time lying down and more time standing with their front legs in free-stalls that are too narrow.

Title: Designing Better Environments for Cows to Walk and Stand
Author: Jeff Rushen
Summary: Lameness is one of the most serious ailments facing dairy cows, and inappropriate flooring has been implicated as a cause. Use of concrete flooring has been associated with increased hoof problems. Increasing both the softness and the degree of surface friction of the floor improves cow mobility and reduces the risk of injury from falls. Softer flooring in front of feed bunks can increase the time cattle spend close to the feeder and may increase feed intake.

Title: Designing Better Environments for Cows to Feed
Author: Marina von Keyserlingk
Summary: Creating comfortable environments for feeding is one important focus of current research within the UBC Animal Welfare Program. Lactating cows spend about one-quarter of their day at the feed bunk. Providing more space at the feed bunk increases feeding time and reduces competition among lactating dairy cows. Providing rubber flooring for the cows to stand on did not affect the amount of time they spent eating, but does increase slightly the time spent standing in this area.

Title: Designing Good Environments and Management for Calves
Author: Anne Marie de Passillé
Summary: Calves can be reared successfully in small groups with computerised milk and grain feeders. Calf growth and health is as good as in individual pens. Automated calf feeders greatly reduce labour and reduce weaning age. Calves do well on high milk intakes: growth, health and feed efficiency is improved. Increasing calves’ milk allowance is simplified by the computerised feeding system. Group rearing of calves with a computerized feeding system works best when calves have had adequate colostrum, groups sizes are small, crosssucking is controlled by allowing calves sufficient time to suck, milk allowance is adequate, and grain intake is encouraged by appropriate weaning techniques.

Session III. Dairy Farm Policy

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Regionalization vs. Globalization of the World Dairy Economy: Conflict or Complementarity?
Author: Philippe Jachnik
Summary: This communication addresses the issue of globalization vs. regionalization of the world dairy economy through international trade in dairy products on the one hand, through internationalization of dairy and food companies on the other.

Title: What Happens If There Is Progress On Multilateral Dairy Trade Negotiations???
Author: Tom Cox
Summary: The world dairy sector is heavily distorted by domestic and trade policies. The price support, border protection and surplus disposal policies in key OECD countries benefit their dairy producers by keeping domestic dairy prices above world market levels. Due to high domestic dairy prices, protectionist policies in OECD countries tend to generate surpluses of milk and dairy products. These surpluses are exported with considerable subsidy, depressing world market prices, inhibiting the potential for domestic milk and dairy production in developing countries.

Title: Working to Get Back on Track: An Update on the WTO Agriculture Negotiations
Author: Steve Verheul
Summary: Achieving a level international playing field is Canada’s primary objective in the World Trade Organization (WTO) agriculture negotiations. Canada is seeking the complete  elimination of export subsidies as quickly as possible, the maximum possible reduction or elimination of trade-distorting domestic support, and substantial market access improvements for all agriculture and agri-food products.

Title: Can the Canadian Supply Management System Survive with Some Producers Marketing Milk Only for Export – The Ontario Experience and Perspective
Author: Bob Bishop
Summary: Operationally you cannot have two milk production and distribution systems without creating resentment and conflict that will destroy one or the other system. Accommodating decisions/directions by OMAF, DFAIT, AGCAN, AFRAAT and DFO toward a small group of producers has caused a lengthy legal process, caused trade risk and put the very existence of the supply
management system in jeopardy.

Session IV. Maximizing the Genetic Potential of Your Replacement Heifers

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Accelerated Replacement Heifer Feeding Programs
Author: Mike Hutjens
Summary: A modified accelerated calf feeding program should be implemented on dairy farms. A specific milk replacer and calf starter are needed to achieve optimal frame growth and  performance. Health status must be monitored to ensure healthy calves and minimize stress. An aggressive feeding and management program must be maintained to ensure early growth  advantages are maintained after 12 months of age.

Title: From Birth to Puberty
Author: Michael Murphy
Summary: The calf should weigh over 80 kg at weaning and over 110 kg at three months of age. Special diets can help achieve this. The heifer must increase in body size, volume, as well as  weight for successful calving at 22 –24 months of age. It is possible to achieve this with good quality silage if specific protein needs are met.

Title: Strategies for Optimizing Reproductive Management of Dairy Heifers
Author: Paul Fricke
Summary: The overall goal of a replacement heifer program is to rear heifers to reach a desired age and body weight early so that they initiate puberty, establish pregnancy, and calve easily at a minimal cost. The economic advantages of using AI to breed dairy heifers exceed those realized when using AI exclusively to breed lactating cows. The rate at which heifers become pregnant after reaching puberty is determined by an interaction between service rate and conception rate. The primary reason for synchronizing estrus in dairy heifers is to facilitate use of artificial insemination.
New protocols for synchronization of ovulation and timed AI of dairy heifers are currently being developed.

Title: Milk Quality Programs for Heifers and Transition Cows
Author: Leo Timms
Summary: Mastitis in transition cows and heifers can be a major contributor to herd mastitis problems! The early dry period and last few weeks before calving are high-risk mastitis periods! A mastitis surveillance program based on SCC/ culture must be in place early postpartum! Prevention and treatment strategies must be organism based so cultures are critical! Prevention should focus on controlling or minimizing organism exposure, optimizing teat end health, and maximizing animal immunity.

Session V. Advanced Feeding Technologies

Keynote Speaker:

Title: The Silage Triangle and Important Silage Practices Often Overlooked
Author: Keith Bolsen

Title: Making the Most of Grass-Based Forages in Diet Formulation
Author: Michael Murphy
Summary: NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber) intake even for high producing dairy cows can be as much as 1.4 or 1.5 % of body weight if the quality of the fiber is accounted for and the ration is fully balanced with regards to rumen degradation. It is necessary to stimulate the entire rumen microbial ecology by supplying different carbohydrates to obtain maximum rumen degradation. It is possible to adapt dynamic principles of outflow and degradation to simple figures for use in the field.

Title: Evaluating Rations from a Whole Farm Perspective
Author: Mary Beth Hall
Summary: To properly evaluate a ration, you need to look at more than the ration formulation on paper. Appraise all things that can affect how well the ration is being used by the cows for  production. Change what you must to make sure that whole farm system supports healthy, productive cows.

Title: Feed Bunk Management to Maximize Feed Intake
Author: Keith Bolsen
Summary: Effective communication and teamwork between the feed caller, feed truck driver, feed mill operator, nutritionist, veterinarian, and even office staff are essential for a successful feed bunk management system on a dairy operation.

Session VI. Transition Cows

Title: Controlling Energy Balance in Early Lactation
Author: Mark McGuire
Summary: The determination of energy balance is normally calculated using energy in minus energy out, which includes many estimates that can impact the result. Cows can use energy reserves in early lactation to support milk production. Cows return to energy balance by 6 to 7 weeks in lactation. High producing cows will consume more feed than lower producing cows to meet their energy needs for greater milk production. Dry matter intake, not milk yield, is the driving force behind energy balance in early lactation. Milk production is not related to body condition score or use of body reserves.

Title: A Fresh Look at Feeding the Transition Cow When Using High Forage Diets
Author: Frank O’Mara
Summary: Cows on high forage diets may be in negative energy balance for several weeks before calving but they suffer a smaller decline in pre-calving dry matter intake than cows on diets including concentrates. If cows are in poor condition score (< 3.0 on a 5 point scale) approaching calving, some supplementary feeding in the close-up dry period is likely to benefit them in terms of milk production because the cow has increased energy reserves to use for milk production. If forage quality in the dry period is moderate or poor, some supplementary feeding in the close-up dry period is like to benefit cows in terms of milk production. There is no evidence that feeding large quantities of a bulky forage like straw in the close-up dry period has any subsequent positive effect on intake or milk production.

Session VII. Managing for Profitability

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Increasing Your Dairy’s Profits with a Proper Milking Routine
Author: Andy Johnson
Summary: Strip 2-3 squirts of milk from each teat. Predip teats and cover at least 90% of teat and make sure the predip is stays on for a minimum of 30 seconds. Wipe teats dry making sure to clean teat wall and teat ends. Attach unit to the cow’s teats 75-90 seconds after stripping. Post dip with effective product and get 90% coverage.

Title: Is a Dry Period Really Necessary?
Author: Mark McGuire
Summary: Most studies evaluating length of dry period are retrospective analyses of data with significant bias possible. New studies have shown that cows given dry periods of less than 40 d are
capable of producing similar milk yields in the next lactation. Cows can produce substantial amounts of milk right up to calving. A lack of a dry period does not alter milk production after calving in cows entering their 3rd or greater lactation. Use of bST improves milk yield in late and early lactation in continuously milked mature cows.

Title: The Environment and Mastitis Control
Author: Andy Johnson

Title: Greenhouse Gas Production from Dairying: Reducing Methane Production
Author: Frank O’Mara
Summary: Methane is 21 times more potent than CO2 as a greenhouse gas (GHG), and dairy cows typically produce 118 kg methane/year, which is over twice that produced by other non-lactating cattle. Evaluation of strategies to reduce methane production should consider the effects on total farm greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing productivity per cow will reduce methane emissions per kg of milk and total farm GHG emissions where milk production is fixed, although the effect on total farm emissions needs further clarification. A lower culling rate will reduce farm methane and total GHG emissions.


Title: The Effect of Freestall Maintenance on Cow Comfort
Authors: Michelle Drissler, Marek Gaworski, Cassandra B. Tucker, and Daniel M. Weary

Title: Effect of Forage Source on Requirements of Particle Size of Lactating Dairy Cows
Authors: Wen Z. Yang and Karen A. Beauchemin

Title: Animal Welfare: New Insight through Genomics Research
Authors: D. R. Glimm, J. Rushen, A. M. de Passillé, F. Dong, P. K. Chelikani, and J. J. Kennelly

Title: Increasing the Level of CLA in Milk Fat Has No Effect on the Sensory Characteristics of Milk
Authors: Bell, J.A. and Kennelly, J.J.

Title: Producing CLA-Enriched Milk Using Dairy Nutrition: Research Summary
Authors: Khorasani, G.R, N. Beswick, J.A. Bell, and J.J. Kennelly

Title: Gene Expression Profiling to Discover Genes Controlling Feed Intake in Dairy Cattle
Authors: D.R. Glimm, F. Dong, P.K. Chelikani, E.K. Okine, G.R. Khorasani, and J.J. Kennelly

Title: Tissue Distribution of Leptin and Leptin Receptor Gene Expression in Holstein Cattle
Authors: P.K. Chelikani, D.R. Glimm, F. Dong, and J.J. Kennelly

Title: Bioproduct Development: Combining the Wisdom of Nature with the Power of Biotechnology to Enhance the Healthfulness of Milk
Authors: D.R. Glimm, F. Dong, G.R. Khorasani, and J.J. Kennelly

Title: Evaluation of the Relative Efficacy of Feeding Processed (Ground) Oilseeds versus Feeding Extracted Oil for CLA Production
Authors: Kennelly, J. J., N. Beswick, and G.R. Khorasani


Session I. Reproductive Management

Keynote Speaker:

Title: The Key to a Successful Reproductive Management Program
Author: Ray L. Nebel
Summary: A calving interval of 13.5 months is an achievable goal that will produce higher daily milk yield and higher milk yield over the length of the lactation. Management must set standard operating procedures for all aspects of the reproduction program such as, heat detection, artificial insemination techniques, hormone injection protocol for synchronization program, and treatment of problem cows and policy established by management must be followed by all. Intensive management of the nutrition, feeding system, and environment of the periparturient  dairy cow during the transition period reduces the odds of disease and increases the odds of pregnancy in a timely manner.

Title: Effects of Nutrition on Fertility in Dairy Cows
Author: Maurice P. Boland
Summary: Fertility has declined significantly in lactating dairy cows. There are some effects of nutrition at the endocrine level; these are variable. Nutrition can influence follicular dynamics,  which in turn can alter fertility. Nutrition influences early embryo development and hence the potential to establish fertility. Treatments such as bST have both positive and negative effects on several aspects of fertility. Methods to manipulate follicular growth and oocyte quality may provide some guidance to improve in fertility in the long-term.

Title: Dietary Fatty Acids and Dairy Cow Fertility
Author: Divakar J. Ambrose
Summary: Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic (C18:2n-6), -linolenic (C18:3n3), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6n-3) acids can affect reproductive function and fertility. Linoleic acid is found mainly in oilseeds, whereas -linolenic acid is found predominantly in forages and in some oilseeds (e.g. flaxseed); Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic  acids are high in fish oils. Dairy cows fed diets high in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (supplementation with menhaden fish meal) or -linolenic acid (supplementation with  flaxseed) during early pregnancy had reduced PGF2 production and increased pregnancy rates.

Title: Controlled Breeding Programs for Reproductive Management
Author: José Eduardo P. Santos
Summary: Manipulation of the estrous cycle to improve service rate and fertility usually impacts positively on PR. Pharmacological control of the estrous cycle involves synchronization of follicular development, control of corpus luteum (CL) regression, and synchronization of ovulation to improve conception and pregnancy rate. The ability to control the time of ovulation precisely with synchronization of ovulation protocols that combine recruitment of follicle growth associated with CL regression, and ultimately induction of a synchronized ovulation has allowed
for successful timed artificial insemination with adequate pregnancy rate.

Session II. Housing and Cow Comfort

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Nutritional Interactions Related to Dairy Shelter Design & Management
Author: Dan F. McFarland
Summary: The design and management of each animal shelter component (feeding, resting, drinking, floor surface, ventilation) can influence the willingness and ability for dairy cows to consume an adequate amount of dry matter. The design of the feeding area should provide a comfortable feeding experience for cows and convenient management for the caretaker. Good animal shelter and feeding area design can not make up for poor (or varying) feed quality or poor management. Even an engineer can feed a hungry cow!

Title: Interrelationships between Housing and Herd Health
Author: Ken Nordlund
Summary: There are myriad interactions between housing and health, some well understood and others that we likely have not yet recognized. In this paper, discussion will be limited to lameness and udder health.

Title: Auditing Cow Comfort – Video behind Barn Doors
Author: Neil G. Anderson
Summary: Astute producers are leading the way in cow comfort. Cows have feelings. Injury, pain, and fear affect cow behaviour, health, and performance. Cows respond to choices of systems, barn features, and management. Lameness, hock sores, and cleanliness are cow responses. Cows audit their care. Reading their report can be a challenge. Cow responses can be audited. Audits include assessments of cows, barn features, and management. Cow comfort scoring is a risk management tool. Cows have rights.

Title: A System to Evaluate Freestalls
Author: Ken Nordlund
Summary: Freestalls can be evaluated using four critical points of adequate surface cushion, adequate body resting space, lunge room for head thrust and an unobstructed “bob-zone”, and adequate height below and behind the neck rail. Surface cushion is the most important factor in determining stall usage. If the stall allows a full forward lunge, the configuration of the stall  divider has little importance. If side lunge is required, the exact height of the divider rails is critical.

Session III. Dairy Farm Policy

Keynote Speaker:

Title: New Zealand, Canada and the Future of the International Dairy Industry
Author: Wade Armstrong
Summary: Fundamental reforms have led to an increasingly efficient and innovative New Zealand dairy industry with the ability to supply consumers with quality products at low cost. While New Zealand (like Canada) is only a mediumsized producer of milk by world standards, 95% of New Zealand milk production is exported. New Zealand trades more dairy products internationally than any other country.

Title: Farm Level Management in Dairy: Does Policy Affect?
Author: Terry Betker
Summary: Policy impacts on dairies directly and indirectly, formally and informally. The pace of trade reform and related policy change is very gradual. However, change is underway,  evidenced domestically and internationally within the WTO. Shifting from day-to-day or operational planning to more formalized strategic planning will provide the best forum to deal with ongoing policy impacts. Past success is no guarantee of future success. There are numerous strategies that can be used to mitigate the risk that is related to changes in dairy policy. “We cannot direct the wind, but we can adjust the sails.” Bertha Calloway

Title: Milk Protein Concentrate Imports: Implications for the North American Dairy Industry
Author: Kenneth W. Bailey
Summary: The TRQ system under the World Trade Agreement has some flaws. Despite the agreement among trading partners to the WTO, the food industry in North America has found creative ways to circumvent tariffs under the TRQ system. The new WTO round should deal with this problem of circumvention by accounting for all trade in milkfat and nonfat solids, and should move away from a product-based TRQ system. In other words, tariffs and quotas should be based on milk components, not tons of finished dairy products.

Title: Future Dairy Policy in Canada
Author: Rick Phillips
Summary: Canadian dairy policy has been relatively successful in obtaining its objectives with respect to producer returns and consumer outcomes. The Canadian domestic market is closer to the long run equilibrium situation economists predict will prevail than the current world market is. Deregulation where it has occurred has resulted in poorer policy outcomes for both producers and consumers. Canadian dairy policies will continue if it is the case that good and practical agricultural policies prevail over misguided economic thinking that doesn’t apply to dairy markets as we know them.

Session IV. Secrets to Success

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Grouping Strategies for Dry and Lactating Dairy Cows – The Southwest Experience
Author: Peter Robinson
Summary: Dairies in the southwest US are highly profitable, at least partly due to their grouping management decisions. Mature cows after dry-off, and heifers within 60 d of calving, are  commonly grouped separately and, within parity groups, are divided into far-off dry and transition dry groups, with the real break commonly found at about 14 days prepartum.

Title: New York versus Western Canadian Dairy Industry: A Personal Experience
Author: Steve Mason
Summary: With over 7,100 milk shippers and 700,000 cows, New York state produces approximately three times as much milk as the four provinces of western Canada. The productivity of New York Holsteins is similar to those in western Canada. At approximately 90 cows per farm, New York state dairies are, on average, larger than those in western Canada although farm sizes range from less than 10 cows to more than 3,000.

Title: Components of a Successful Heat Detection Program
Author: Ray L. Nebel
Summary: Visual heat detection programs have failed to identify the majority of cows in heat. The obvious difficulty in successfully identifying all periods of estrus is their brevity and obscurity. The expression of estrus in cycling cows requires good nutrition, excellent cow comfort, the best hoof health possible, consistency of procedures by all involved, and attention to details. The equal distribution of the onset of standing activity during the day combined with the average estrus duration of 7 hours dictate that observations should occur three to four times daily, approximately six to eight hours apart.

Title: Biosecurity: What Does it Mean?
Author: Gerald W. Ollis
Summary: Biosecurity can apply to many different levels, for example a single premise, a geographical region, an entire country, or parts of several neighboring countries. This presentation will focus on the need for biosecurity in the broadest sense and will not be restricted to a specific farm or business.

Title: Practical Ration Evaluation: Things to Look For To Determine If Your Nutritionist Is Doing a Good Job
Author: Gabriella A. Varga
Summary: Observation of the dairy facility and the cows is a necessary prerequisite prior to ration formulation. Records and benchmarks have to be determined by the nutritionist as part of the pre-work needed for ration balancing. Evaluation of the management abilities and human resources available is critical to determining if the nutritionist’s rations will be implemented
correctly. The expectations of the nutritionist and the goals for the farm need to be agreed upon prior to implementation of a nutritional program.

Session V. Forage Management

Keynote Speaker:

Title: How to Maintain Forage Quality during Harvest and Storage
Author: C. Alan Rotz
Summary: Rapid field curing is important and a good conditioner can help. Spread hay in wide swaths to further speed drying, but avoid very thin swaths to reduce raking loss. Bale hay at about 18% moisture in low-density bales, but use a lower moisture content for high-density large bales. Use good silo management (rapid filling, good packing and a tight cover) to maintain ensiled forage quality. When using silage bags or bale silage, check for punctures periodically to assure that a tight seal is maintained.

Title: Does Crop Health Management Improve Cereal Silage Production in Alberta?
Author: George Clayton
Summary: Integrated Crop Management (ICM) concepts focus on integrating all approaches to crop health, which are driven by the economic and ecological limits of the system. Higher seeding rates result in plant populations that create competitive barley stands and higher silage yield. Diversify crop rotations, either through barley variety or use of other crop types, to meet the production and management needs of the farmer. Normal date of silage harvest with low rates of herbicide can enhance wild oat management, but early-harvested silage can be a very effective wild oat management tool without herbicides.

Title: Corn Silage and Whole Sunflowers – Energy from the Prairie Sun to Your Cows
Author: Douglas Yungblut
Summary: Modern high producing dairy cows face a potentially serious energy deficit in early lactation. There are several ways of addressing this deficit, one of the best being to increase the energy density of the ration. Corn silage has the potential to be a high energy forage, but grain development is important to maximize the energy content of corn silage. The best way to ensure grain development is to select hybrids with the correct maturity. Proper storage and feed-out are critical in ensuring that the cows get the full value from a silage crop. Feeding fat is an excellent way to increase the energy density of dairy rations.

Title: Forage: How Much do Dairy Cows need in a Time of Scarcity?
Author: Karen Beauchemin
Summary: Lack of available good quality forages may prompt some producers to reduce the proportion of forage in the diet. It is possible to maintain high levels of production and animal health with low forage diets, however a higher level of management is required to be successful. Much more care must be taken in formulating low forage diets, particularly with barley diets. To prevent ruminal acidosis, starch content of the diet should not exceed 33%. In most cases, this corresponds to 21 to 23% forage NDF. Lower levels of forage fiber can be fed, but starch content must also be adjusted downward. Maintaining adequate forage particle size is critical in low forage diets.

Session VI. Managing Metabolic Disorders

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Herd-Based Biological Testing for Metabolic Disorders
Author: Garrett R. Oetzel
Summary: Herd-based testing can be used as part of an overall diagnostic scheme for solving herd problems. Biological test results do not stand alone, but must be corroborated by other herd data. Tests must be interpreted in light of the biology they evaluate; some are interpreted as the proportion of cows above or below a threshold, and others are interpreted as means. Minimum sample sizes are about 12 cows for proportional outcomes and 8 cows for mean outcomes.

Title: Transition Cow Management to Reduce Metabolic Diseases and Improve Reproductive Management
Author: José Eduardo P. Santos
Summary: Improvements in fertility in lactating dairy cows can be achieved by feeding management during the transition period aimed at reducing the incidence of metabolic disorder that might directly or indirectly impact reproductive function.

Title: Subacute Ruminal Acidosis in Dairy Cattle
Author: Garrett R. Oetzel
Summary: Ruminal acidosis is as much an important economic and health issue for dairy herds as it is for beef feedlots. Ruminal acidosis is the result of total intake of fermentable  carbohydrate and cannot be predicted by low fiber density alone. Cows possess a number of complex mechanisms to keep their ruminal pH above the biologic threshold of about 5.5. Cows self-correct low ruminal pH by eating less; lower production results. The clinical effects of subacute ruminal acidosis are delayed from the time of the acidotic insult. Milk fat depression is not a consistent feature of ruminal acidosis. Forage particle length and grain particle size are important determinants of the risk for subacute ruminal acidosis. High dry matter intake and over-eating following periods of feed deprivation are often over-looked as important causes of subacute ruminal acidosis.

Title: Trace Minerals in Production and Reproduction in Dairy Cows
Author: Maurice P. Boland
Summary: Fertility in dairy cows has declined significantly in the past 30-50 years. Factors that control the health of the follicle and oocyte are poorly understood. Trace minerals have a significant role to play in many aspects of production including fertility. Improvement in reproductive activity in males and females has been associated with supplementation of minerals, particularly when given in the organic state.

Session VIII. Managing for Profitability

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Do We Need Two Close Up Dry Cow Groups?
Author: Gabriella A. Varga
Summary: Nutrition and management during the transition period are essential in determining the profitability of the cow for the rest of her lactation. Dry cows need to be fed high quality consistent sources of feed. Feeding a one group TMR reduces labor input, allows easier management of feed delivery. The cost associated with feeding one ration throughout the entire dry period is easily offset when considering the costs associated with the treatment and lost production for one case of ketosis. Cow comfort and exercise are critical in assuring an excellent transition program for the high producing dairy cow

Title: Photoperiod Management of Dairy Cattle for Performance and Health
Author: Geoffrey E. Dahl
Summary: Lactating cows should be under long day photoperiod of 16 to 18 hours of light to increase milk production. In late pregnancy expose cows to short day photoperiod of less than 10
hours of light to maximize production and improve health status in the transition period.

Title: Whole Farm Impacts of Automatic Milking Systems
Author: C. Alan Rotz
Summary: A comprehensive assessment is needed when considering the purchase of an automatic milking system because many aspects of the farm are impacted beyond the obvious effects on milking equipment and labor requirements. An automatic milking system normally cannot be justified on an economic basis, but the long-term costs and returns can be similar to  conventional parlor systems when herd size is well matched to milking capacity. The decision to adopt automatic milking is normally driven by noneconomic issues such as the producer’s interest in new technology and the desire or need to alleviate the daily milking routine.

Title: Robotic Milking: The Future?
Author: Bart Geleynse
Summary: Some of the challenges that users of the technology face are capital cost, technical support, lifestyle, regulations, cull rates, milk quality and udder health. The benefits include lifestyle, low stress cow environment, labour issues, milk production, quality, and udder health. Robotics in one form or another will define dairies of the future.

Title: Milking Frequency Effects in Early Lactation
Author: Geoffrey E. Dahl
Summary: As little as 21 days of 4X milking early in lactation can increase yield throughout lactation. Prolactin increases at milking may be the mechanism to enhance mammary cell growth and thus milk yield. Frequent milking early in lactation can improve yields throughout that lactation with little additional cost.


Title: Conception Rates to Timed A.I. and to A.I. at Detected Estrus
Author: Divakar J. Ambrose, Pavol Zalkovic and Phyllis Day

Title: Effect of Dietary Energy and Protein Density on Body Composition in Dairy Heifers during the Peripubertal Period
Author: Chelikani, P. K., J. D. Ambrose, and J. J. Kennelly

Title: Effect of Canola Oil Supplementation on Nutrient Digestion and Milk Composition
Author: Chelikani, P. K., J. A. Bell, and J. J. Kennelly

Title: Leptin: A Multifunctional Signal from Fat
Author: Chelikani, P. K., D. R. Glimm, and J. J. Kennelly


Keynote Speaker:

Title: Farm Animal Welfare in a World of Changing Expectations
Author: David Fraser
Summary: Cultural attitudes toward animals have been changing rapidly during the past 50 years. These changes have culminated in some remarkable and very recent developments in farm animal welfare. To prepare for such changes, the animal industries need certain services and resources to be in place.

Session I. Benchmarks for a Successful Dairy Operation

Title: The 100-Day Contract with the Dairy Cow: 30 Days Prepartum to 70 Days Postpartum
Author: James N. Spain
Summary: The dairy cow is undergoing numerous changes in endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, and physiological status as she prepares for calving and initiation of lactation. If the negative energy balance during transition becomes excessive, metabolic diseases such as fatty liver and ketosis can result. Intensive management of the nutrition, feeding system, and environment of the periparturient dairy cow reduces the odds of disease and increases the odds of success.

Title: Troubleshooting Nutritional Disorders
Author: Randy D. Shaver
Summary: Digestive disorders, sub-acute rumen acidosis and displaced abomasum, cause economic loss in dairy herds through treatment costs, production loss, and premature culling. Evaluate ration formulation, feed quality and physical form, feed delivery, bunk management, cow comfort, and animal performance parameters when troubleshooting digestive disorders. Herds with  inadequate feeding and management programs for transition cows are at an increased risk of developing nutritional disorders.

Title: Using Farm Records to Set Benchmarks on the Farm
Author: Sandra Stokes
Summary: Proper data assimilation allows farm information to be used in decision-making. Regular evaluation of key data can allow early intervention to problem areas. Peer discussion groups can provide comparisons of local data for benchmarking herd progress.

Session II. Health

Title: Direct Production Losses and Treatment Costs due to Four Dairy Cattle Diseases
Author: Alfons Weersink
Summary: The direct production losses and treatment costs at the herd level were: $2,421 for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), $806 for enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), $2,472 for Johne’s Disease (JD), and $2,304 for neosporosis in the Maritime provinces of Canada. Total costs at the industry level were $1,264,355, $641,061, $842,042, and $1,909,794 for BVD, EBL, JD, and neosporosis, respectively. The distributions for all diseases were positively skewed, implying that the average costs reported above were higher than what most farmers experienced. The largest effect on costs was due to milk yield effects.

Title: Alberta’s Johne’s Disease Control Program
Author: Chunu Mainali
Summary: Johne’s disease is an infectious, progressive and debilitating disease of livestock. An infected herd not only impacts production and trade but may also have potential link with Crohn’s disease in humans. Alberta Johne’s Disease Control Program is comprised of four integrated components: awareness and education; veterinary accreditation; Voluntary Johne’s Herd Status Program; and collaborative research.

Title: Can We Prevent Hoof Problems?
Author: Roger Blowey
Summary: Lameness remains a major problem in dairy cattle worldwide. In the UK the average incidence is around 50 cases per 100 cows per year, with much higher incidences being seen in some free-stall housed cattle. Because of its effect on subsequent fertility and production, the cost of a single case of lameness is estimated to be around £200 ($450 Canadian), although this will vary enormously from case to case depending on severity.

Title: Minimizing Lameness through Genetic Selection
Authors: Gordon Atkins and Jay Shannon
Summary: The cause of lameness is multi-factorial and includes conformation defects, nutrition, environmental stress, injury, and infection. Estimates of heritability for foot and leg disorders range from near zero to greater than 30%. Since bull proofs do not exist for foot disease traits, the next best approach for utilizing genetics to minimize lameness is the use of foot and leg conformation as an indirect selection tool.

Session III. Dairy Policy

Title: Who Benefits from Deregulated Milk Prices: The Missing Link is the Marketing Channel
Author: Ronald W. Cotterill
Summary: As I will show you today in this paper the degree of competition in the market channel structure determines to a large extent who benefit from deregulated milk prices. When one introduces the milk marketing channel to the problem one is faced squarely with a fundamental question of price transmission. What we mean by price transmission is captured by the following question: if one lowers the farm price through milk price deregulation how much of that decreased farm price will be transmitted forward to consumers?

Title: Industry View of Environmental Issues
Author: Carissa Itle
Summary: Producers must become increasingly aware of environmental regulations that can impact their way of doing business. In the U.S., recent federal and state initiatives have aimed at minimizing the environmental impacts of animal agriculture. In addition, many producer groups are developing voluntary, incentive-based programs to educate producers and assist them in making environmental management decisions.

Title: The Next Round of WTO Negotiations: What Is In It For Dairy?
Author: James Rude
Summary: A new round of World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations are underway with a schedule of tasks to be completed by 2005. To date, good progress has been made, but in order to meet the deadline for completion the U.S. Administration has to receive negotiating authority from Congress. Border measures, such as tariffs, are the biggest obstacle to liberalized trade in dairy products. Most large developed countries use a system of two-tiered tariffs to protect their markets. The system only allows limited access at preferential tariffs, while over-quota tariffs are often prohibitive.

Keynote Speaker:

Title: A Blueprint for Evaluating Feeding Programs
Author: Michael F. Hutjens
Summary: Dairy managers and cows make feeding changes on the farm. Some changes are intentional (such as reformulation of rations) while others “happen” (such as heat stress). The skilled manager, feed consultant, and veterinarian are continually evaluating and “reading” cows. Monitoring milk yield and components reflect nutrient balance. Feed particle size is critical for health and optimal production. Blood, milk, and urine measurements can identify metabolic risks. Feeding program economics are key to profitability.

Session IV. Reproduction

Title: The Future of Dairy Reproductive Management
Author: Matthew C. Lucy
Summary: Reproductive efficiency of modern dairy herds is declining. Greater milk production of modern dairy cows only explains a small percentage of the reproductive decline. Other factors including housing and reproductive management as well as the physiology and genetics of modern dairy cows are probably more important. Reproductive efficiency of modern dairy cows can be improved through attention to detail when using current reproductive methods, genetic selection of sires whose daughters have superior fertility, pharmacological control of reproduction, and the use of automated management systems.

Title: Managing Postpartum Reproductive Issues
Author: W. Ronald Butler
Summary: Negative energy balance during early lactation is the major nutritional link to low fertility in lactating dairy cows. Negative energy balance delays recovery of postpartum reproductive function and exerts carryover effects that reduce fertility during the breeding period. Animal health components (liver, uterus, mammary gland) affect reproductive performance. Feeding, nutrition, and health of lactating cows for improved reproductive performance begins in the transition period and continues through early lactation.

Title: Essentiality of Specific Fatty Acids in Reproductive Performance of High Producing Dairy Cows
Author: James N. Spain
Summary: High levels of milk produced by today’s dairy cows create a challenge in meeting the animals’ energy requirements during early lactation. The resulting negative energy balance impairs reproduction. Supplemental fats have been used to increase energy density of the diet with the intent of reducing the magnitude of the early lactation energy imbalance. Fats may play a more important role associated with reproduction through the function of essential fatty acids. It may be possible to use fat sources to supply specific essential fatty acids that will enhance reproductive performance of high producing dairy cows.

Title: Stress and Its Effects on Fertility of the Dairy Cow
Author: Hilary Dobson
Summary: It is important to identify the incidence of major stressors on each individual farm – these will vary from farm to farm. Some every-day events are stressful for cows. Lameness and bad calvings have significant effects on fertility. Mastitis is also painful and has a major economic impact. Try solving one problem at a time. Financial considerations will probably dictate your emphasis.

Session V. Forages – From Field to Milk

Title: The Importance of Forage Quality for Milk Production and Health
Author: Sandra Stokes
Summary: Forages are the foundation behind dairy rations and forage quality affects herd health and production performance. Quality forage supplies on the dairy don’t just happen. They are the result of a planned and executed forage management program.

Title: Choosing the Right Corn Hybrid for Silage
Author: William P. Weiss
Summary: Potential differences between corn silage hybrids in net dollar returns can be estimated using yield, NDF concentration, and in vitro NDF digestibility data obtained from yield trial summaries. Higher economic value should be assigned to hybrids with increased concentrations of NDF and energy. These are important nutrients in corn silage and are likely to differ between hybrids. Any differences in economic value of the hybrids must be compared to potential differences in production costs.

Title: Cereal Silage Options for Western Canada
Author: James H. Helm
Summary: Cereal crops provide producers with a lot of options that allow the producer to balance silage yield, quality, harvesting and storage. Producers must look at species, varieties and mixtures as ways of controlling silage quality. In monocrops, the stage of harvest should be at the soft-dough stage. In mixtures, the later maturing component at the soft-dough stage will give
highest yield and energy and if harvested when the earliest component is at the soft-dough stage, protein content will increase. Disease factors are important considerations. Rotate your crops and
varieties to guard against the build up of new diseases or disease races.

Title: Rumen Acidosis in Dairy cattle: Bunk Management Considerations
Author: Randy D. Shaver
Summary: Bunk management is a risk factor for sub-acute rumen acidosis (SARA). A myriad of errors in feed delivery and bunk management can occur on commercial dairies. Bunk management practices that promote feed sorting and slug feeding must be controlled to minimize the incidence of SARA. Cow comfort, her environment, and the formulated diet need to be
evaluated in conjunction with bunk management practices when investigating laminitis problem herds.

Session VI. Integrated Nutrient Management

Title: Nutrient Cycling and Attempts to Reduce Nutrient Losses from Farms in Maryland
Author: Richard A. Kohn
Summary: Nutrient management regulations are increasingly focused on mandating nutrient management plans and preventing runoff from manure storage and animal holding areas. Although most regulations have focused on manure management and fertilizer application, the most cost effective means to reduce nutrient pollution and comply with regulations is to improve production per cow and feed closer to requirements.

Session VII. Milking Management and Calf Feeding

Title: Increasing Milking Frequency
Author: Mark Varner
Summary: Milk yield increases by a fixed amount due to increased milking frequency, and not by some percentage of previous milk yields. Six times-a-day milking frequency from calving through six weeks postpartum results in not only increased production during the period of high frequency milking, but also in a significant carry-over during the remainder of lactation while milked three times-a-day.

Title: Passive Immunity in Newborn Calves
Author: James Quigley
Summary: The neonatal immune system at birth is naïve to the wide variety and types of pathogens present in the environment. Consumption of colostrum to provide circulating IgG prior to the cessation of macromolecular transport (“closure”) is essential to ensure healthy calves. There are a tremendous number of factors that may influence the absorption of IgG by calves; therefore, blanket recommendations for feeding one amount of colostrum to all calves is inappropriate.

Session IX. Management and Facilities

Title: A Case Study Farm; Visiting Ralph Rumen
Author: Michael F. Hutjens
Summary: Developing a plan when evaluating a feed program allows individuals to find weak areas in the dairy operation. Evaluating the milk production records (yield, components, and trends) provides an “early look” at potential problems. Observing cow behavior will rule in and out key problems. Obtaining input from other sources on the farm including the veterinarian, feed dealer/consultant, and foot trimmer will add to the plan and strategies.

Title: Planning for the Future: How Modernization Can Increase Your Farm’s Profitability
Author: Roger W. Palmer
Summary: The role of the dairy manager is to plan strategically and to direct resources in a way that leads to a profitable and sustainable dairy enterprise. Management is the process of decision-making and has three major functions: planning, implementation and control.

Title: Cow Facilities and Effects on Performance
Author: John F. Smith
Summary: Maximizing access to feed and water is a critical design factor. Selecting cow housing is a critical decision. Avoid just looking at initial investment cost of freestall barns. Stress should be minimized in the milking facility by limiting the time cows are away from feed and water. Avoid building bottlenecks into the dairy design that limit your ability to correctly group cows. Design your dairy to manage heat stress in the holding pen and cow housing.

Title: Dairying Together as a Family
Author: Bernard L. Erven
Summary: Dairying together as a family is challenging. It also has the potential of being extremely rewarding. Understanding the family business environment starts the process of success
with family labor. Several family business characteristics appear negative. The challenge is to take advantage of the significant strengths of family businesses while dealing with their inherent weaknesses.


Title: Efficacy of ECF Dipstick Test for Determination of Nonpregnancy in Dairy Cattle
Authors: J.D. Ambrose, B. Radke, P.A. Day, M. MacLean

Title: Feeding Behaviour of Dairy Cattle
Authors: L. Baird, T. DeVries, M. von Keyserlingk, D.Weary, J. Shelford, K. Beauchemin.

Title: Sole Lesions and Lameness in Dairy Cattle
Authors: Erin Bell, Frances Flower & Daniel Weary

Title: An Economic Analysis of Productive Efficiency in Alberta Dairy Production
Authors: Heather-Anne R. Grant and Scott R. Jeffrey

Title: Rumen Undegradable Protein from Grass
Authors: P. Groenenboom, J. Shelford, and S. Bittman

Title: Interregional Dairy Cost Efficiency Comparison: The Case of Alberta and Ontario
Authors: Getu Hailu, Scott Jeffrey and Jim Unterschultz

Title: Effects of Neck Rail Position on Dairy Cattle Behavior
Authors: Cassandra B. Tucker and Daniel M. Weary

Title: Dairy and Animal Science Electronic Executive Summaries (DASEE)
Author: Mark Varner

Title: Optimizing Particle Size of Dairy Cow Diets with the Penn State Particle Separator
Authors: Wen Z. Yang and Karen A. Beauchemin

Title: Bacteria Counts In Sand and Sawdust Bedding
Authors: Gosia Zdanowicz, Jim Shelford, Dan Weary, Cassandra Tucker


Keynote Speaker:

Title: Integrated Dairy Farm Management
Author: Barbara Dartt
Summary: Small business owners are required to fill each of the three key roles necessary in any business: worker/technician, manager and leader/entrepreneur. Because many dairy producers are production oriented, they spend a majority of their time in the technician role, neglecting management and leadership roles. Transitioning to an emphasis on strategic planning is difficult, but can pay many dividends including improved quality-of-life, profitability and sustainability.

Session I. Management, Nutrition and Health

Title: Transition Cow Programs — The Good, The Bad, And How to Keep Them from Getting Ugly
Author: Thomas R. Overton
Summary: Transition cow management underpins production and profitability on dairy farms. Aggressive monitoring programs for fresh cows prevent cascades of metabolic disorders and improve profitability. We must “manage metabolism” of transition cows by maximizing dry matter intake and ruminal fermentation to optimize glucose supply and minimize problems with metabolism of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) by the liver

Title: Protein and Energy Needs of the Transition Cow
Author: Gabriella A. Varga
Summary: Dry matter intake may be decreased 10 to 30% during the period three weeks prior to calving. The last 3 weeks prior to calving it is recommended that energy density should be in the range of 1.5 to 1.6 Mcal NEl/kg DM, CP in the range of 13-14%, NFC between 33 to 38% and NDF >32%. More information is needed regarding the metabolizable protein and energy needs of the fetus, placenta, fetal fluids, uterus and mammary gland during the dry period.

Title: Impact of Rumensin on the Health of the Transition Dairy Cow
Author: Todd Duffield
Summary: Rumensinâ administered in the transition period improves energy balance in early lactation. Improved energy balance reduces the risk of energy associated disease such as ketosis, abomasal displacement and retained placenta. The Rumensinâ controlled release capsule (CRC) has been studied more extensively than feed delivered monensin for its impact on health.  The Rumensinâ CRC ensures a consistent daily dose of monensin that is independent of variable feed intake fluctuations both before and after calving.

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Reproductive Management of Cows in High-Producing Herds
Author: Jeffrey S. Stevenson
Summary: Challenges facing high milk-producing cows limit their reproductive efficiency: interrelationships among body condition, DM intake, transition from the dry period to lactation, onset of normal estrous cycles, detection of estrus, and embryonic survival. Attention is required to details associated with diet formulation; feed bunk management; cow comfort in free stalls, holding pen, and milking parlor during extremes of temperature and humidity; proper hoof care; milking management and mastitis prevention; control of ovulation and estrus; and early nonpregnancy diagnosis.

Session II. Heifer Feeding and Management

Title: Growth Standards and Nutrient Requirements for Dairy Heifers – Weaning to Calving
Author: Robert E. James
Summary: Age and size at first calving has a large bearing on lifetime production and profit. Holstein heifers should calve the first time by 22 to 24 months of age weighing 550 – 600 kg. In addition to body size at calving, rate of growth during various times of the rearing period can have an impact on mammary development, and lifetime performance.

Title: The Advantages of “Accelerated Growth” in Heifer Rearing
Author: Mike Van Amburgh
Summary: Profitability of the heifer enterprise is an integration of our understanding of the biology of heifer growth and the management necessary to accomplish appropriate growth in the most timely and cost effective manner. The concept of accelerated growth has been receiving additional attention. Our definition of the concept involves a systematic approach to redefining nutrient requirements from birth and setting specific targets and goals from the day of birth that appear to more closely resemble “normal growth”.

Title: Heifer Management Programs for Large and Small Operations
Author: Robert E. James
Summary: The dairy heifer grower must produce a higher quality product (the heifer) at a lower cost than the producer. Cost control is achieved with close attention to feeding, labor efficiency and effective health programs. Quality is assured when the grower can document desired growth through effective performance monitoring programs and records.

Title: Calf Management: Improving Calf Welfare and Production
Author: Daniel M Weary
Summary: Calves kept with the cow for 2 weeks gain weight at more than 3 times the rate of conventionally reared (i.e. early-separated and fed milk at 10% body weight / day) calves. Calves fed as much as they want (ad libitum) drink about twice as much milk but gain weight at twice the rate of conventionally fed calves. Ad libitum teat-fed calves can be successfully reared in small  groups.

Session III. Housing, Equipment and Management

Title: Cow Flow: Impact of Management Changes on Group and Herd Size
Author: Barbara Dartt
Summary: Anticipating fluctuations in milking herd size is a key step to both projecting cash flow streams and managing quota. Accurately budgeting cash flow streams is important when determining the financial feasibility of an expansion. Purchasing large numbers of springing heifers or milking cows without associated youngstock means that additional cattle will need to be purchased to maintain herd size for at least two years. Accurately budgeting the timing and magnitude of these purchases is important to the financial feasibility of an expansion.

Title: Pricing Feed Ingredients on the Basis of their Nutritional Value
Author: Normand R. St-Pierre
Summary: In many instances, nutritionists, feed manufacturers, dairy producers and their advisor need an estimate of what a feed is worth on a nutritional basis to facilitate the formulation of balanced diets and the purchase of appropriate and price competitive feedstuffs. Up until now, all methods used shared common flaws. We derived a maximum likelihood method that uses composition and prices of all feedstuffs traded in a given market to estimate unit costs of nutrients and break-even prices of feedstuffs.

Title: Lighting – A Natural Way to Increase Milk Production
Author: P.A. (Paul) Wasney
Summary: Research in Canada, USA and elsewhere suggests that cows may produce more milk when lighting intensity (expressed in foot candles (FC)), in the housing facility for the milking herd is bright (16 – 20 FC), stays on for a continuous period of 16 – 18 hours, and is well distributed throughout the area. Typical increases in milk productivity can range from 5 to 16 per cent. Ongoing research also indicates cows need a daily dark interval of at least 4 hours and therefore continuous 24 hour lighting is not necessary or else the effect of improved lighting may be lost.

Title: Stall Design: Enhancing Cow Comfort
Author: Daniel M. Weary
Summary: Research on cow comfort examines cow preferences, stall usage, and  other factors including injuries and udder health. For example, cows prefer to lie down on softer surfaces, they spend more time lying down on softer surfaces, and use of softer surfaces reduces injuries to both front and hind legs. New Canadian research is beginning to provide a sound, scientific basis for recommended stall design.

Title: Healthy Livers Make for Healthy Cows
Author: Thomas R. Overton
Summary: Transition cows must exquisitely coordinate their metabolism to meet tremendous increases in nutrient demand during early lactation. These include adaptations in whole-body glucose metabolism and liver-specific adaptations relative to utilization of individual substrates for glucose synthesis. Mobilization of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from body fat during the transition period appears to present challenges to the capacity of liver to synthesize glucose, either directly or indirectly through impaired capacity of liver to detoxify ammonia to urea.

Session IV. Human and Animal Health

Title: Changing Consumer Demand for Dairy Products
Author: Katherine Loughlin
Summary: The consumer of the 21st century continues to evolve in terms of shopping, cooking and eating preferences and habits. This presentation will explore the impact of demographics and the changing consumer tastes and habits with reference to the potential impact on the dairy industry.

Title: Opportunities for Genetic Selection to Increase Milk Quality
Author: Dorian J. Garrick
Summary: The value of milk to the producer depends upon its true value and the payment system adopted by the industry. Altering the composition of milk by genetic means can be achieved by selection, crossbreeding and transgenic approaches. The impact of within-breed selection on the quality of milk is affected by the relative emphasis placed on milk quality compared to other attributes that comprise the selection objective.

Title: Production of Low Fat Milk by Diet Induced Milk Fat Depression
Author: J. Mikko Griinari
Summary: Biohydrogenation theory may represent the unifying theory that explains the basis of diet induced milk fat depression (MFD). Simple feeding strategy to depress milk fat, involving dietary supplementation with one or several CLA isomers, is available. Optimal feeding strategies using CLAs to induce MFD are yet to be defined.

Title: Conjugated Linoleic Acid Enriched Milk: A Designer Milk with Potential
Author: John A. Bell
Summary: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring component of ruminant milk fat with potent cancer-fighting properties. The concentration of CLA in bovine milk is strongly influenced by diet. Manipulation of the animal’s diet can result in a 10 fold increase in the concentration of CLA in milk. Consumption of CLA enriched milk could provide considerable benefits for human health.

Title: Is Antibiotic Use in Dairy Cattle Causing Antibiotic Resistance?
Author: T. A. McAllister
Summary: Antibiotics are important tools for managing disease in dairy cattle. Because of microbial evolution, use of antibiotics will invariably result in some degree of microbial resistance to antibiotics. Prudent use of antibiotics can reduce the risk and extent of microbial resistance. Antibiotics should not be used as a substitute for good management practices.

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Potential Of Biotech Crops as Livestock Feed
Author: Gary F. Hartnell
Summary: The ability to introduce DNA directly into crop plants enables a selective plant improvement process that promises to continue to enhance agricultural productivity as well as being environmentally sustainable. While biotechnology provides an important tool to help address many of these challenges, this tool must be effectively integrated with the best current agricultural practices that encompass the most productive and environmentally appropriate technologies around the world.

Session V. Environmental Stewardship

Title: Economic Factors Affecting Nutrient Balance on Dairy Farms
Author: Normand R. St-Pierre
Summary: The contribution of nutrition and management to reduction in nitrogen excretion while maintaining the total national supply of milk can be funneled through one or more of the five following routes: From a better definition and targeting of optimum allocation of inputs (i.e., operate at optimum), From increased animal productivity (reduction of 8% in national N excretion from a 25% increase in cow milk production), From an improved knowledge of the biology included (reduction of 8% in N excretion), From feeding larger herds with larger and more numerous pens (reduction of 8% in N excretion from feeding 6 groups vs. a one-group TMR), and From technical shifts (e.g., protected amino acids).

Title: Nutrient Management on Dairy Farms – Development and Application of the Cornell University Nutrient Management Planning System – a Case Study
Author: Mike Van Amburgh
Summary: With expanded knowledge and an increase in herd size to maintain profitability and economic sustainability, environmental sustainability has become as important an issue as profitability. With a greater emphasis on environmental issues, decisions become much more global, and the amount of information that needs to be accounted for can be overwhelming.

Title: Efficient Nutrient Management for Quality Forages
Author: Loraine Bailey
Summary: The highest yields and the best quality forages are produced on soils with high productivity capacity when plant nutrient, soil water and soil chemistry are optimum for plant growth and development. Legumes and grasses are heavy users of plant nutrients. Consequently, effective fertilizer management is a critical component in forage production, not only to improve financial returns, but also to maintain soil quality and reduce the likelihood of damage to the environment.

Title: Using Dairy Slurry for Sustainable Crop Production: Short Term and Long Term Effects
Author: Shabtai Bittman
Use manure as the main source of nutrients for your grass crops. Test manure for mineral N content with the Agros or Nova Meter. Apply manure with surface banding equipment such as the sleighfoot or Aerway SSD applicators. Apply manure at about two thirds of recommended rates of mineral N according to the Agros meter. Conduct test strips with contrasting rates of manure and/or fertilizer to compare response. Soil sample fields in Oct. for residual levels of nitrate, phosphorus and potassium.

Session VI. Future Dairy Policy, Home and Abroad

Title: Trade Liberalization and the Canadian Dairy Sector
Author: Danny G. Le Roy
Summary: The price and quantity supplied of raw milk in Canada is determined using a supply management system rather than the free interaction of supply and demand. The ability of the supply management system to realize dairy policy goals depends on: over-quota tariffs remaining high; minimum access levels remaining small; restrictions on raw milk supply. The next round of multilateral trade negotiations will expand minimum access and reduce tariffs.

Title: The Future of the Dairy Industry in Canada
Author: Robert Romain
Summary: There is now a strong
and irreversible trend towards increased market liberalization, i.e. the reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers. Policies that isolate the domestic market from international competition will increasingly be challenged. In fact, supply management in the dairy sector has already been challenged by the United States and New-Zealand. The decision of the WTO Panel was partly in favour of the complaining parties and adjustments to the marketing system had to be made.

Title: Future U.S. Dairy Policy: The Next Farm Bill
Author: Robert Cropp
Summary: For better than 50 years two federal programs have impacted farm level milk prices, the federal dairy price support program, which is national in scope, and federal milk marketing orders, which are voluntary and apply to about 70% of U.S Grade A milk supply. The two programs work together to provide some price stability and to enhance farm level milk prices.

Title: Recent Pre- and Post-Farm Gate Developments in the New Zealand Dairy Industry
Author: Dorian J. Garrick
Summary: The current system of dairy production in New Zealand is characterised by seasonal supply from a pasture-based diet. Most milk is processed and exported as commodity products to world markets. Dairy farm returns are subject to cost-price squeeze, necessitating many actions to maintain or increase profitability. Dairy companies and factories have merged to obtain economies of scale. Two companies now process over 95% of the milk.

Session VIII. Reproduction

Title: Synchronization of Estrus and Ovulation in Dairy Cows
Author: Jeffrey S. Stevenson
Summary: Management of the estrous cycle is now more practical than it was a decade ago because of our understanding of ovarian follicular waves. With availability of three gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) products and at least three prostaglandin products, the cycle can be controlled for timed artificial inseminations (TAI) with little loss in conception rate compared to inseminations made after detected estrus. Various systems are effective for programming first inseminations with or without some heat detection.

Title: Computerized Heat Detection
Author: John P. Kastelic
Summary: Conception rates are highest when cows are inseminated from 5 to 16 h after the first mount. The efficiency of visual detection of estrus is < 50% in most dairy herds and 5 to 30% of inseminations occur in cows that are not in estrus. Walking activity increases around the time of estrus and can be measured with a pedometer. Pedometers will detect 70 to 80% of cows that are in estrus. Pressure-sensing devices can provide efficient and accurate monitoring of mounting activity in cattle.

Session IX. Manure Management

Title: Impact of Intensive Livestock Operations on Water Quality
Author: Jim J. Miller
Summary: Estimates of manure production from 1992 census data showed that Alberta produced the largest quantity of cattle and hog manure, and British Columbia the largest amount of  poultry manure in Canada. Updated estimates based on 1999 and 2000 census data revealed that Alberta still produced the highest quantity of cattle manure, but Manitoba produced the most hog manure, and British Columbia the largest amount of poultry (layers) manure. Nutrients, soluble salts, pathogens, heavy metals and organic chemicals in the manure have the potential to pose a threat to water quality if the soil is used as an infinite sink.

Title: Odours from Intensive Livestock Operations
Author: Sean M. McGinn
Summary: Odour intensity associated with livestock facilities consists of a multitude of organic and inorganic compounds. Odorous organic compounds result from incomplete anaerobic  breakdown of manure; urea in urine is quickly lost as ammonia. Dispersion greatly reduces exposure to high concentrations but odour can still linger out to 1 km from a livestock facility. Management strategies can reduce odour and enhance the value of manure as a crop fertilizer

Title: Composting: An Alternative Approach to Manure Management
Author: Jerry Leonard
Summary: Composting is an environmentally viable option for dairy manure management, and may be carried out in a variety of ways ranging from simple, low cost, passive piles to  sophisticated, automatically controlled in-vessel systems.


Title: Cows with Cystic Ovaries Conceive Normally to Ovsynch and Timed A.I.
Author: Divakar J. Ambrose

Title: Pregnancy Rates after CIDR-Based Timed A.I. Using Gnrh or Estradiol Cypionate in Dairy Heifers
Authors: Divakar J. Ambrose, John P. Kastelic, Raja Rajamahendran

Title: Producing Conjugated Linoleic Acid Enriched Milk Through Practical Dairy Nutrition.
Authors: J.A. Bell and J.J. Kennelly

Title: Prediction Of Fertility Of Young Sires Using In Vitro Tests
Authors: G. Giritharan, P. Madan, K.M. Cheng, R. Rajamahendran

Title: Effects of Physically Effective Fibre on Chewing and Ruminal pH
Authors: Wen Z. Yang and Karen A. Beauchemin


Session I. Management and Health

Title: Designing and Managing Facilities to Maximize Dry Matter Intake
Author: Mike Brouk

Title: Trouble-Shooting Nutritional Problems
Author: David Reid

Title: Nutritional Management Practices Worth Adopting from California
Author: Peter Robinson 

Title: Balancing Rations for Milk Components
Author: Bill Chalupa 

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Balancing the Animal’s Nutritional Needs with Environmental Stewardship
Author: Larry Satter

Session II. Health and Nutrition

Title: Improving Milking Efficiency
Author: David Reid

Title: Johne’s Disease: Diagnosis and Control
Author: Don Sockett

Title: Managing Postpartum Health and Cystic Ovarian Disease
Author: Augustine Peter

Session III. Nutrition for a Healthy Cow

Title: Maintaining a Healthy Rumen – An Overview
Author: Lyle Rode

Title: Managing Rumen Fermentation in Barley-Based Diets: Balance Between High Production and Acidosis
Author: Karen Beauchemin

Title: Potassium and Other Macrominerals for the Lactating Cow
Author: Bill Sanchez

Title: Protein and Energy Nutrition of the Transition Cow
Author: Lorraine Doepel 

Title: Controlling Postpartum Disorders with Good Nutritional Practices
Author: Bob Van Saun 

Session IV. Optimizing Reproductive Performance

Title: Maximizing Fertility in the Dairy Herd
Author: Ray Nebel

Title: Strategies to Improve Reproductive Management of Dairy Cows
Author: Bill Thatcher

Title: Timing of AI – Have We Been Wrong All Those Years?
Author: Ray Nebel

Title: Effects of Dietary Fat Supplementation on Reproduction in Lactating Dairy Cows
Author: Bill Thatcher 

Title: Abortions in Dairy Cows: New Insights and Economic Impact
Author: Augustine Peter

Session V. Nutrition and Management

Title: Profitable Culling and Replacement Strategies
Author: Brian Radke

Title: Eating and Feeding Behavior of Dairy Cows: Dietary Influences and Impact on Production
Author: David Christensen

Title: Manipulating Milk Protein Production and Level in Lactating Dairy Cows
Author: Peter Robinson

Title: Processing Barley Grain and High Moisture Barley – How Much is Enough?
Author: Rick Corbett 

Title: The Use of Peas in Dairy Rations
Author: David Christensen

Session VI. A Forum on Future Dairy Policy: Implications for Production and Trade

Title: Future Dairy Policy: A Policymaker’s Perspective
Author: Nelson Coyle

Title: Future Dairy Policy in Europe
Author: Alison Burrell

Title: Future Dairy Policy in the US
Author: Scott Brown

Title: Future Dairy Policy in Canada: Implications for Production and Trade
Author: Michele Veeman

Keynote Speaker:

Title: Contract Growing Dairy Heifers: The Good, The Bad, The Ugly
Author: Mike Brouk

Session VIII. Building Your Feeding Program on Quality Forage

Title: Optimizing Yield and Quality of Cereal Forage
Author: Vern Baron

Title: Corn Silage as a Companion Forage: Pros and Cons
Author: Larry Satter

Title: The Fundamentals of Making Good Quality Silage
Author: Tim McAllister

Title: Blood Profiles as Indicators of Nutritional Status
Author: Bob Van Saun 


Title: Advances in Bovine Embryo Transfer- Using DNA Analysis to Select the Sex and Genotypes of Calves
Author: Brian Shea

Title: Tail Docking Dairy Cattle
Authors: Cassandra Tucker and Dan Weary

Title: Cow Comfort And Free-Stall Design
Authors: Dan Weary and Cassandra Tucker

Title: Plane of Nutrition Affects Growth and Reproduction In Prepubertal Dairy Heifers
Authors: Chelikani, P.K., Ambrose J.D., Glimm, D.R. and Kennelly, J.J.


Session I: Breeding for Profit in the New Millennium

Title: Increased Inbreeding and Relationships of Holsteins – How Much Further Should We Go?
Author: Les Hansen

Title: Effect of Inbreeding on Lifetime Performance of Dairy Cows
Author: Bennet Cassell
Summary: Inbreeding should be managed in a herd breeding programs rather than avoided. Outstanding bulls should be used if the benefits of genetic improvement exceed losses from any possible inbreeding depression. Inbreeding in offspring differs for each sire-dam combination, making mate assignments important if inbreeding is to be managed properly. Blanket
recommendations of a bull as an “outcross” to groups of cows may not be effective in reducing the impact of inbreeding.

Title: Relationship of Production and Conformation to Lifetime Profit
Author: Bennet Cassell
Summary: Type traits are useful for improving lifetime profit, but are less useful than most producers believe. Production traits, productive life, and SCS are much more valuable traits to change through selection. Just because somebody recorded data on 14 type traits and calculated genetic evaluations on them doesn’t mean that all those traits should affect sire selection. Closer front teat placement has some value. Deep udders are harmful but shallow udders that don’t milk are even worse. Genetic differences between bulls in foot angle doesn’t affect lifetime profit very

Title: Longevity of Holstein Cows Bred to be Large versus Small for Body Size
Author: Les Hansen
Summary: Two lines of Holstein cows that have been bred for over 25 years to differ for body size did not differ for production or calving ease. Cows in the large line had greater body weight, body dimensions, and birth weight of calves, and required more A.I. services to conception during first lactation.

Session II: Management and Health

Title: Optimizing Milk Production and Reproductive Efficiency by Controlling Metabolic Disease
Author: David Byers
Summary: A healthy cow will give more milk and have better reproduction. Controlling metabolic diseases is necessary for optimum performance. Metabolic diseases are complexes (e.g., one condition leads to another, and to another, etc.). Fatty liver, hypocalcemia, and acidosis-laminitis are major metabolic complexes that adversely affect dairy cattle performance.

Title: Dry Cow Nutrition and Metabolic Disease in Parturient Cows
Author: Jesse Goff
Summary: Stimulate the growth of “lactate metabolizing” bacterial species in the rumen. Stimulate growth of the rumen wall so absorption of nutrients is maximized. Payoff – less ketosis, fewer displaced abomasums, less rumen acidosis and less lameness due to laminitis in early lactation.

Title: Retained Placenta: Causes and Treatment
Author: Chuck Guard
Summary: Retained placenta is defined as the failure to pass all or part of the placenta from the uterus within 24 hours of calving. There are several potential causes for placental retention but the effects on the general health of the cow and her subsequent reproductive performance are costly events to the dairyman.

Session III: Managing Reproduction and Health for Profit

Title: An Overview of Strategies to Improve Reproductive Efficiency
Author: Divakar Ambrose
Summary: Inefficient heat detection is the single largest reason for infertility. Spend more time detecting heat and do it more frequently. Take advantage of estrus synchronization. Inducing estrus in groups of three or more cows helps in enhancing estrus behaviour and heat detection rate. Choose a simple, effective protocol and use it aggressively. Revisit semen handling procedures and insemination techniques. Reconsider managerial factors. Set voluntary waiting period at 60 days. Cows in poor body condition at breeding are less likely to conceive. Use body condition scores for reproductive management.

Title: Management Strategies for Improving Reproductive Efficiency in Lactating Dairy Cows
Author: Paul Fricke
Summary: Dairy producers should strive to improve pregnancy rate by improving the AI service rate in their herd. Estrus detection is poor on most dairy farms not only because of inadequate estrus detection protocols, but because expression of estrus behavior is poor in lactating dairy cows. Estrus detection aids are useful tools for improving estrus detection efficiency and AI service rates.

Title: New Information on Timed Breeding Protocols for Lactating Dairy Cows
Author: Paul Fricke
Summary:  Synchronization of ovulation and timed AI improves pregnancy rate in a dairy herd by increasing AI service rate. Timed AI to synchronization of ovulation results in conception rates similar to that of AI to a standing estrus. Timed AI after synchronization of ovulation can be conducted any time from 8 to 24 hours after the second GnRH injection of the protocol. Ovsynch is a cost-effective tool for managing reproduction in lactating dairy cows.

Title: Humane Marketing and Transportation of Cull Dairy Cows
Authors: Margaret Fisher and Byrnne Rothwell
Summary: Cull dairy cows have characteristics which can make them difficult to humanely market. Dairy producers should be making marketing decisions which will ensure humane salvage of their animals. Compromised dairy cows should not be marketed through auction markets.

Session IV: Nutrition and Management

Title: Critical Evaluation of Feeding Options for Replacement Calves
Author: Jim Drackley
Summary: Milk replacers have advantages where concern exists about spread of infectious diseases (Johne’s, BVD, leukosis) to calves. Excess colostrum and transition milk produce the lowest-cost gain, while quota-priced milk produces the most costly gain. Milk replacer results in lower-cost gain than quota-priced milk when fed at equal nutrient intakes, but is more costly than over-quota milk.

Title: Practical On-Farm Suggestions for Managing Body Condition, Dry Matter Intake for Optimum Production, Reproduction and Health
Author: David Byers
Summary: Objectives of body condition management include 1) preventing excessive body condition loss in early lactation, 2) restoration of body condition during lactation, and 3) maintenance of body condition during the dry period. The key to preventing excessive body condition loss in early lactation is to optimize dry matter intake (DMI). Restoring body condition during lactation requires strategic planning.

Title: New Perspectives on Energy Values and Supplementation Levels of Supplemental Fats
Author: Jim Drackley
Summary: Use of supplemental fat is a proven method to improve energy balance of cows, which may result in increased milk yield, better body condition, and improved reproductive performance. Energy values of fats are difficult to determine and are highly dependent on digestibility of the supplemental fat. Providing the optimal amount of supplemental fat will result in the greatest profits to dairy producers. Evidence is provided that the optimal amount of supplemental fat likely is about 3% of total dietary dry matter

Title: Mastitis and Retained Placenta – Relationship to Bovine Immunology and Nutrition
Author: Jesse Goff

Title: Nutrient Recycling – What Happens to the Excreted Nutrients?
Author: John Paul
Summary: Most of the nutrients that are fed to dairy cattle end up in the manure. Much of the nitrogen in manure can be lost to the air during storage and after application to land. Other nutrients accumulate in soil because they have no other loss pathways. Excess potassium accumulation is a potential herd health risk. Accumulation of other nutrients including nitrogen may pose increased risk of ground or surface water pollution.

Session V: Health

Title: The Role of Vaccination in a Good Herd Health Program
Author: John Ellis
Summary: Routine vaccination is an integral part of an effective herd health and biosecurity program. Immunity is a complex interaction between non-specific and specific host defense mechanisms. Vaccination is impacted by genetics, age, nutrition, and physiological status of the cow or calf. “Vaccine failure” is most often associated with a faulty vaccination program
rather than a faulty vaccine

Title: Recommended Vaccination and Management Practices for a Successful Herd Health Program
Author: Gordon Atkins
Summary: Successful vaccination programs must be planned to meet the needs of a specific farm. There is a difference between vaccination and immunization. The most successful vaccination programs utilize both modified live and killed vaccines. A calf’s first vaccination is critical to activate the immune system. A good vaccination program must be scientifically correct and still be
compatible with the management practices on the farm. Vaccination is the insurance policy for a healthy herd.

Title: Strategic Parasite Control – A Door Opens
Author: Doug Colwell
Summary: The parasites of most concern in western Canadian dairies appear to be ice and mange. Good diagnosis should precede parasite control decisions. Economics of parasite control vary, but the aesthetic factors may be very important in making treatment decisions.

Title: Control Programs for Digital Dermatitis
Author: Chuck Guard
Summary: Lameness in cattle is a common condition that can result in significant economic loss to a producer through a variety of mechanisms. Lame cows do not eat as much as healthy cows and thus produce less milk or less gain. They may have poor demonstration of estrus or become anestrous. Furthermore, they may be prematurely culled due to low milk production, delayed conception or emergency slaughter.

Session VI: Human Resources and Business Management

Title: The Competitiveness of Alberta’s Dairy Industry
Author: Carlyle Ross
Summary: Timing of regulatory changes and industry adjustment in Alberta and Canada is very critical to future industry sustainability and growth. Domestic regulatory changes should precede border changes to give the local industry sufficient time to adjust. Alberta’s dairy industry seems to be in the best position to compete against other provinces and the USA. There is need for increased public and private investment in research to rapidly increase milk production per cow and reduce milk production costs.

Title: Successful Succession in a Multi-Generation Business with a Team Approach
Author: Gary Bradshaw
Summary: Step 1 Discover People’s Expectations; Step 2 Explore the Options; Step 3 Build a Succession Plan; Step 4 Check With the Experts

Title: Estate and Tax Planning for Succession
Author: Russell Flint
Summary: There are numerous personal and family issues confronting family farms. relating to inter-generational farm transfers. There are complex planning, tax and accounting issues relating to farm succession conveyance. There are solutions, and there are rewards for confronting these difficult issues

Title: Managing the Multi-Generation Business with a Team Approach
Author: Gary Bradshaw
Summary: By recognizing your management strengths, as well as those areas which could be strengthened, your farm business will be a more complete picture for everyone including the employer and employees.

Title: Business Management Skills for the New Millennium
Authors: Len Bauer and Bob Burden
Summary: As dairy farms, along with other farm businesses move into the 3rd millennium they face the challenge of developing and enhancing managerial skills in ten important areas: Negotiating skills and legal awareness, Family and business dynamics skills, Economic and investment analytical skills, Employee relationship skills, People transition management, Information technology and information management skills, Communication and leadership skills, Environmental management skills, Food safety management skills, and Agricultural technology management skills.

Session VII: Creating a Positive Environment for Humans and Animals

Title: Environmental Design for Healthier and More Profitable Cows
Author: Jeff Rushen
Summary: Environments for dairy cattle should be designed so as to reduce stress on the animals. Resting time is important for dairy cattle. Poorly designed stalls for cattle, such as those that are too short or with inadequate flooring, lead to reduced occupancy of free-stalls, reduce the time the cattle spend resting and increase the chance of injury and lameness. High producing cows are more susceptible to stress so increases in production level need to go hand-in-hand with improvements in cow care and comfort.

Title: Building and Remodeling Freestall Housing for Cow Comfort
Author: Bill Bickert
Summary: Freestall design is a compromise between comfort and cleanliness. Of all the factors that discourage cow’s from using freestalls, the condition of the bed is likely the most important. The only logical reason for not using sand as a base and bedding has little to do with cow comfort and udder health, but with the difficulty it adds to the manure system or the availability of high quality sand.

Title: Are you a Source of Stress or Comfort for your Cows?
Author: Anne Marie de Passille
Summary: Cattle’s fear of people can be a major source of stress. This stress causes lost production and reduced milking efficiency. Stressed cattle are difficult to handle and there are increased risks of accidents for handlers and animals. Much of this fear results from the way the cattle are handled, which raise concerns about animal welfare. Cattle quickly learn to recognize individual people and to distinguish those who treat them gently from those who don’t.

Title: Affordable Calf and Heifer Housing
Author: Bill Bickert
Summary: Housing facilities serve as tools for carrying out the essential tasks prescribed by a heifer management program and provide an environment for the animals that is vital to calves, heifers and cows as they grow, mature, reproduce and produce milk. The calf hutch is the gold standard for calf housing in terms of the environment it provides. Special consideration to housing for calves from weaning to 5 or 6 months of age makes the transition at weaning less stressful and reduces a setback that may be equivalent to two weeks or more of growth.

Title: Manure Management – Have You Considered Composting?
Author: John Paul
Summary: Composting may be an option on large farms with a small land base or where an opportunity exists to market the product. The type of composting system depends on the nature of the manure being composted, the end use of the material, the resources available on farm, and the environmental constraints. We are working to develop composting systems that reduce the amount of bulking agent required to allow us to compost liquid manure. Composting with worms may be a good option for some farms.