Keynote Speaker

Title: The Fundamentals of Profitable Milk Production
Author: Randy Shaver
Summary: Consistency of feeding and management practices is extremely important in dairy production. Pay attention to detail and do the little things right to optimize milk production. Sticking to the proven basics of breeding, feeding, and management is the key to profitable milk production.

I: Priming for Production.

Title: Building A Better Cow – Aggressive Heifer Growing Approaches
Author: Mike Hutjens
Summary: Heifer groups are critical for optimal growth and proper management and may require facility additions and/or modifications. Aggressive heifer growth requires higher nutrient levels than in NRC (9). Heifers must be measured quarterly to determine if growth targets are achieved.

Title: Feeding Management during the Transition Phase
Author: Charles C. Stallings
Summary: For successful transition from the dry period to lactation it is important to maintain nutrient intake pre- and post-calving by using digestible rations that are palatable and nutritionally balanced. Control of potassium and sodium intake is important in preventing metabolic disorders. Use feed additives selectively to stimulate intake and/or digestion, prevent fall of blood calcium, and maintain a strong immune system.

Title: Anion, Vitamin E, and Se Supplementation of Diets for Close-Up Dairy Cows
Authors: David K. Beede and Thomas E. Pilbeam
Summary: Supplementation of anions (Cl- and SO4-2 ) in diets of close-up dairy cows has become more common in recent years to aid in control of hypocalcemia and related peripartum health disorders. These anions are helpful to counteract the deleterious effects of high dietary K on Ca status in the peripartum period. Anions are used to decrease the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) which in turn results in mild systemic metabolic acidosis. This is efficacious to increase blood Ca in response to hypocalcemia. Recent research suggests that SO4-2 is a less powerful acidifier than Cl-. This suggests that perhaps we should re-think which is the most appropriate DCAD equation.

II: Feeding and Management Strategies.

Title: Strategies to Maximize Feed Intake and Milk Yield in Early Lactation
Author: Mike Allen
Summary: Energy intake in early lactation is affected by many different environmental, management, animal, and dietary factors. Maximizing energy intake requires appropriate management through all phases of lactation. Diets must be formulated to balance fermentation acid production.

Title: Reproductive Management – A Nutritionist’s Perspective
Author: Jim Spain
Summary: Nutrition management influences reproduction in the dairy cow. Dry cow nutrition must be carefully managed to prevent metabolic diseases that can adversely affect reproductive performance of the dairy herd. Energy balance during early lactation is the second key nutritional factor that affects reproduction. Protein, vitamins and minerals must also be balanced to support optimal reproductive function of the lactating dairy cow.

Title: Ionophores – Mode of Action and Effects on Milk Yield and Milk Composition
Authors: J.J. Kennelly, L. Doepel, and K. Lien
Summary: Ionophores function primarily in the rumen and positively influence energy and protein metabolism. Ionophore supplementation can have a positive influence on post-partum metabolic disorders. In general, ionophore supplementation results in milk fat depression but has little effect on lactose yield or protein content. Increases in milk yield and/or protein content in some studies demonstrate the potential of ionophore supplementation to positively influence milk yield and composition.

Title: Influence of Monensin on Post-Partum Health and Production
Author: Todd Duffield
Summary: Monensin CRC treatment three weeks prior to calving reduced the incidence and duration of subclinical ketosis in early lactation. Precalving monensin treatment improved cow health by reducing the incidence of abomasal displacement and multiple illnesses. Monensin CRC treatment increased milk production in cows having good and fat body condition prior to calving but had no impact in thin cows. Milk components (milk fat percent and milk protein percent) and reproductive performance were unaffected by monensin CRC treatment.

III: Risk Management.

Title: Environmental Risk and Dairy Farming
Authors: Keith Wilson and Jason Krips
Summary: Unincorporated dairy operations are bound by and must follow environmental statutes.Directors and officers of incorporated dairy farming operations owe a fiduciary duty to the corporation and they must take all Areasonable care@ applicable in the circumstances in regards to environmental matters; Directors and officers of dairy farming corporations can be liable under the Alberta Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act and the federal Fisheries Act for the release of substances harmful to the environment or into water frequented by fish

Title: Legal Issues of Risk Management in Agriculture
Author: Russell A. Flint
Summary: Farmers must be aware of legal risks involving the use of agricultural property, and farm business risks. Farmers who fail to properly control their cattle can face liability. A farmer can be held liable for damages caused by substances which are used in accordance with common farming principles that escape from his property. There are several advantages for a dairy producer to operate his farm as a corporation.

Title: Policy Risk: Implications for Dairy Farm Management
Author: Scott R. Jeffrey
Summary: Given recent and potential future changes in the policy environment, policy risk is an important consideration for dairy producers in western Canada. In general, risk may be considered as an additional Acost@ associated with milk production, and should be treated as such in farm management decision making. Dairy producers in western Canada may have to consider alternative risk management strategies in the future, if there are changes in the current supply management system.

IV: Nutrition.

Title: Digestibility of Forage Fiber – Variation, Measurement, and Relationship to Animal Performance
Authors: Mike Allen and Masahito Oba
Summary: Fiber digestibility may be a key factor for maximizing milk production. Increasing fiber digestibility will increase the energy density of diets, will provide more energy to ruminal microbes which may increase microbial protein synthesis, and result in higher DMI. Although higher fiber digestibility can be expected to benefit all ruminants, it may be particularly beneficial to dairy cows in early lactation. These animals usually cannot consume sufficient energy to support requirements and they mobilize body reserves to sustain milk production.

Title: Factors Which Influence Forage Quality and Effectiveness in Dairy Rations
Author: Joe W. West
Summary: Different forage species vary greatly in their digestibility and intake potential. Compared with legumes, grasses often have greater fiber digestibility, but are slower to digest and may limit intake. Increasing maturity reduces digestibility and intake potential for forages, and the effect is greater for grasses than for legumes. Environment affects forage quality, and forages grown under high temperatures are usually of lower digestibility than those grown in cool conditions. Poor quality forage can not be overcome by simply adding more grain (energy) to the diet. Good quality forage provides the basics for sound ration formulation.

Title: Effective Fiber in Barley-Based Diets
Authors: Karen A. Beauchemin and Lyle M. Rode
Summary: Maintaining high ruminal digestion is critical for barley grain to maximize total tract digestion of feed. However, extensive processing also increases the degree of acidity in the rumen. It is important to maintain a balance between over-processing (acidosis, metabolic diseases) and under-processing (reduced digestibility and animal performance). The concentration of neutral detergent fiber from forage sources necessary to maintain 3.5% milk fat in diets based on barley is higher than that for diets based on corn. Extensive processing of barley grain and fine chopping of forages increases the need for forage fiber in the diet to avoid milk fat depression.

Title: Enzymes to Enhance Utilization of Feed in Dairy Cows
Authors: Lyle M. Rode and Karen A. Beauchemin
Summary: Fibrolytic enzymes can be a highly effective means of increasing milk production and diet digestibility in dairy cows consuming a wide range of feedstuffs. Enzymes with similar in vitro activity can differ greatly in their effectiveness when fed to cattle. Method of application is critical to successful use of enzyme technology.  Feed enzymes are more effective when a liquid preparation is sprayed on feed than when included in the diet in a dry formulation. Feed enzymes are more effective when applied to dry forage or concentrates than when applied to wet feeds.

Title: Balancing Minerals and Vitamins for Production, Reproduction and Health
Author: Tim Brown
Summary: Laboratory analyses of feedstuffs for mineral content are essential for balancing minerals in the diet. When selecting sources of supplemental minerals, only those of high bioavailability should be considered. The feeding of minerals in excess of established requirements should be avoided except in certain situations where more of a particular element has proven to provide benefits to the animal.

V: Getting the Most out of Feed Resources.

Title: Calf Management – Birth to Weaning
Author: Tim Brown
Summary: Minimizing calving difficulty provides calves that are more vigorous and easier to raise. Four liters of high quality colostrum within the first 12 hours of life are essential to survival.
Powdered milk replacers differ with regard to ingredient quality. Only those made of high quality ingredients should be fed. Providing clean water and high quality dry starter feed every day will increase growth rates and make weaning less traumatic.

Title: Profitable Forage Management Strategies
Author: Jim Spain

Title: Cost Effectiveness of Feed Additives
Author: Mike Hutjens
Summary: Additives must be cost effective before being included in dairy rations. The role of an additive must be defined and evaluated on individual farms. The additive must be included in the ration at an optimal level.

Title: Buffers – What and When to Use
Author: Joe W. West
Summary: Buffers are effective in maintaining rumen pH and elevating milk fat percentage. In early lactation, buffers can improve dry matter intake and milk yield. Buffers are most effective in diets based on corn silage and which are high in very fermentable carbohydrates. Diets based on alfalfa benefit little from buffering. Low content of forage, small forage particle size, very wet diets, diets high in fermented forages, and diets high in by-products with small particle size favor the use of buffers.

Title: Making Effective Use of Production Management Records
Author: Jim Spain
Summary: Complete and accurate production records should be used to make management decisions. A weak link analysis allows farm managers to prioritize management attention on those most critical weaknesses. Establish Management Action Plans (M.A.P.S.) to implement change. Management lists can be used to isolate cows into management groups that require special attention.

VI: Health and Production.

Title: Fine-Tuning Mastitis Control Programs
Author: Ken E. Leslie
Summary: Implementation of commonly recommended mastitis control practices will dramatically decrease the prevalence of contagious pathogens, but not necessarily reduce clinical mastitis caused by infections with environmental organisms. Udder health management that fulfills the three basic principles of eliminating existing infections, preventing new infections and monitoring udder health status are highly successful. A new udder health management program involving ten steps is now recommended as a comprehensive approach to mastitis control.

Title: Body Energy Management
Author: Dave K. Beede
Summary: Dairy cows must have adequate body energy reserves at the beginning of lactation to maximize milk production and become pregnant. Proper management of body energy begins in the previous lactation, through the dry period. Under-conditioned cows at dry-off must deposit body reserves during the dry period and should be provided the dietary energy to accomplish this via higher energy density diets and (or) by higher dry matter intake. Over-conditioned cows at dry-off and at parturition are more prone to metabolic disorders and suboptimal subsequent lactational performance.

Title: Preventing Abomasal Displacements
Author: Randy Shaver
Summary: Because of intake depression prior to calving and slow intake ascent post-calving, the transition period is the major risk period for abomasal displacements. Feeding and management practices that prevent other calving-related disorders reduce the risk of abomasal displacements. Cows that have excess body condition at calving are at increased risk of ketosis and abomasal displacements. Both excessive and minimal feeding of concentrates pre-calving may increase the risk of abomasal displacements.

Title: Manure Scoring as a Management Tool
Author: Charles C. Stallings
Summary: Manure scoring is not likely to become as popular as body condition scoring as a management tool. There are many factors that can impact on manure visual appearance, not all of which are nutritional. However, there are some things that can be said about observing changes in manure. Cows fed for production are likely to have feces that are more fluid in appearance than feces from cows fed higher fiber rations, although, fecal dry matter may be greater. High levels of ruminally degradable protein supplements can result in feces appearing more fluid, probably a result of increased water consumption in an effort to excrete excess nitrogen via the urine.



Title: Dairy Cattle Breeding – Are We Heading in the Right Direction?
Author: Ted Burnside
Summary: Young dairy sires being entered into progeny test programs in 1997 will set the standards for dairy improvement by the year 2000 as they achieve their first progeny tests. AI centres are maturing and consolidating into breeding companies today. Can we expect them to be as aware of the needs of the dairy farmer as they have been in the past, and will they be able to cater to individual concerns as well as they have in the past?

1. Feeding and Management

Title: Management of Dairy Replacement Calves from Weaning to Calving
Author: James D. Quigley
Summary: Raising heifers from weaning to calving involves proper planning, nutrition, and management. Rates of body weight (BW) gain are important to ensure that heifers are large enough to breed by 13 to 14 months of age at 340 to 380 kg. However, excess rates of BW gain – especially prior to puberty – can permanently reduce milk production. Heifers should be managed and fed to maintain 0.77 to 0.82 kg of BW gain daily. Body condition near calving should be 3.5 to 4.0. Ration quality – especially forage quality – is key to ensuring adequate rates of BW gain and achieving calving goals.

Title: Feeding and Managing High-Yielding Dairy Cows
Author: Carl E. Coppock
Summary: In mild to cold weather, nutrition is likely the most widely limiting constraint to higher milk production. By-products/co-products provide a major source of feed nutrients for dairy cattle, though there are few free lunches. The majority of high-yielding cows are fed via the TMR system because of its inherent advantages. Milking 3X is successful where managers recognize the need for additional feed and rapid flow through the milking operation.

Title: The Effects of Forage Quality on Performance and Cost of Feeding Lactating Dairy Cows
Authors: Jim Linn and Carla Kuehn
Summary: Forage quality can impact dairy producers through their effects on milk production, feed costs, and cow health. High quality legume/grass forages of 125 relative feed value (RFV) or higher with over 20% of their weight in particle lengths of 3.8 cm or greater are needed in lactating cow diets. Forages of lower quality are consumed slower and in less quantity, and thus provide less nutrients to the animal. Diets containing 21% NDF from high quality forages will return more milk production and reduce off-farm feed costs.

Title: Managing Dairy Feed, Manure, and Fertilizer in Nutrient Cycles
Author: Douglas Beegle
Summary: Nutrient management is not a once and done activity, it is an on-going cyclical process of assessment, management option selection, planning, implementation, and then back to assessment. Nutrient Management plans are not one size fits all plans. They must be tailored to the individual situation on each farm. Dairy farms with low animal density need to manage manure for maximum efficiency to reduce fertilizer purchases. Dairy farms with high animal density need to manage manure for maximum on-farm utilization of manure in an environmentally safe manner.

Title: Using Composted Dairy Manure
Author: Douglas Beegle
Summary: Composting is the aerobic, or oxygen requiring, decomposition of organic materials by microorganisms. In the composting process microorganisms use the organic matter containing carbon compounds, nutrients, and water as a source of energy and nutrition for growth thus breaking down the organic matter. In the process water vapor, heat from microbial respiration, and carbon dioxide gas are given off and the finished compost is a more stable product made up of microbial residues and the more resistant organic compounds from the raw materials.

2. Basic Nutrition

Title: Balancing Carbohydrates for Optimal Rumen Function and Animal Health
Author: Sandra R. Stokes
Summary: Carbohydrates are the primary sources of energy in the diet of dairy cows, consisting of both structural (fiber) and non-structural (starch) components. Inadequacies of either carbohydrate component (fiber or starch) can instigate severe metabolic problems (displaced abomasum, ketosis) causing long-term consequences (laminitis). Factors influencing rate and extent of ruminal carbohydrate digestion include both nutrition and feeding management. Balance rations to achieve uniform rumen fermentation and minimize acidotic conditions.

Title: Balancing Dietary Protein to Maximize Protein Recovery in Milk
Authors: Helene Lapierre, Doris Pellerin and Jean-Francois Bernier
Summary: To improve dietary nitrogen utilization we want to: reduce ammonia absorption with an adequate balance of the degradable vs undegradable portion of the protein in the feedstuff, in relation to the degradability of the energy (carbohydrates), and increase amino acid utilization towards protein synthesis to the detriment of oxidation of amino acids: this can be maximized with an adequate balance of amino acids being absorbed. To reach an adequate balance of amino acids being absorbed, the utilization of rumen protected amino acids might be economically interesting, but only after sources of lysine and methionine have been utilized to the fullest extent.

Title: B-Vitamins: Current Recommendations are Inadequate for Optimal Production
Author: Christine L. Girard
Summary: The dairy cows requirements for B-complex vitamins is greater than that needed to prevent deficiency symptoms. Early-lactation dairy cows in negative energy balance can benefit from niacin supplementation. Herds with a high incidence of hoof lesions could benefit from long-term biotin supplementation. Folic acid supplementation can increase milk production and, under some dietary conditions, may also increase milk protein content.

3. Applied Nutrition

Title: Balancing Rations for Forage Quality
Author: Carl E. Coppock
Summary: For dairy cattle, ample effective fiber is a physiological imperative for good health and longevity. To formulate energy dense rations necessary for high yields requires minimal effective fiber which places one on the edge of the canyon of acidosis. The two best forage subsitutes are whole cottonseed and cottonseed hulls. Both alfalfa and corn silage are forages with very special nutritional properties, but high production can be achieved with neither of them, though it is much easier with either or both of them.

Title: Alternative Fiber Sources for Dairy Cattle: Uses and Limitations
Author: Rick Grant
Summary: Fibrous co-products can be used to successfully replace either dietary concentrate or forage. Fibrous co-products reduce the incidence of ruminal acidosis when they replace starchy concentrates. When fibrous coproducts replace dietary forage, the effective fiber content of the total ration must remain adequate to prevent acidosis-related problems that may reduce performance. Guidelines are suggested for optimal feeding of alternative fiber sources for lactating dairy cows.

Title: Johne’s Disease: A Cloud on the Horizon?
Author: Gerald W. Ollis
Summary: Johne’s disease is a progressive, debilitating disease of all ruminant animals for which there is no treatment. It is caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, which has been implicated as a cause of Crohn’s disease in humans. Like all infectious microorganisms, the rate of spread of M. paratuberculosis is directly related to the number of infected animals in a herd. Johne’s disease is a disease of adult animals that was contracted in the first few months of life. This disease can be controlled, but it requires commitment and persistence over a period of time.

4. Managing Breeding and Reproduction for Profit

Title: Techniques to Maximize Conception Rates
Author: Jeffrey S. Stevenson
Summary: Factors governing reduced reproductive performance in dairy cattle are numerous and often difficult to diagnose. In general, those factors resulting from fertilization failure (e.g., semen handling and AI techniques) are more easily resolved by technician retraining than those related to early embryonic death. Although it may be difficult to diagnose various causes of embryonic death; they are usually related to some source of stress experienced by the lactating cows. Artificial insemination breeding programs are successful when high rates of heat detection and conception are achieved.

Title: Breeding Cows from Hormonal Scheduling Programs
Authors: Zola “Bud” Keister, Sue DeNise, Dennis Armstrong, Myron Brown and Roy Ax

Title: Management of Dairy Cows to Minimize Reproductive Problems after Parturition
Author: Jeffrey S. Stevenson

Title: Successful Embryo Transfers from Heifers Near Puberty: Opportunities for the Future
Authors: Janice Oyarzo, Ross Tappan, David Selner, Mary Bellin, and Roy Ax
Summary: Young Holstein dairy heifers just a few months prior to puberty (peripuberal) can be used as embryo transfer (ET) donors. The hormonal therapy and ET did not adversely affect milk production, reproductive performance, or udder conformational traits. This enables their first sons and daughters to be reaching puberty when the donor heifers acquire their production phenotypes as 2-year-olds. These animals can serve as an additional resource for attaining genetic gain within a dairy herd.

Title: Sire Selection to Maximize Profits. The Total Economic Value Index
Author: E.B. “Ted” Burnside
Summary: Canadian dairy farmers are very fortunate to have substantial sire progeny proving systems in Canada that are well supervised and executed. Canada also has excellent milk recording and conformation evaluation systems, along with effective and expanding farmer-recorded evaluations on utility traits, and very accurate sire and cow evaluation systems that are built on top of the accurate record systems. This has not happened by chance nor over a very short period of time. As one who has spent a lifetime working on this system, helping breeders derive more accuracy and profitability from their selection decisions, I am very pleased with what has evolved in Canada.

5. Nutrition and Health

Title: Dietary Cation-Anion Balance in Dairy Cow Nutrition
Author: Elliot Block
Summary: Dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) is a relatively new topic in dairy cattle nutrition and is making its way into many ration formulations as another specification, just as degradable protein has. The value of DCAD is easy to calculate as only two cations (sodium Na+ and potassium, K+) and two anions (chloride, Cl – and sulfate, SO4- are used. The equation is milliequivalents (Na+ and K+) – (Cl-+ SO4=) per kilogram of dry matter.

Title: Peas as a Protein and Energy Source for Ruminants
Author: Rick R. Corbett
Summary: Peas contain high levels of protein and starch and are a good source of protein and energy for ruminant animals. Cattle find peas very palatable. The protein in peas is rapidly degraded in the rumen. Peas do not require processing as they do not survive chewing intact. There does not appear to be an upper limit on the amount of peas that can be included in rations that are balanced for undegradable intake (by-pass) protein.

Title: Optimizing Cereal Silage Quality
Authors: G. Reza Khorasani and John J. Kennelly
Summary: The economic value of cereal silage is dependent on the level of animal production it will support. The nutritive value of cereal silage depends on its contribution to the energy and protein needs of the animal. Crude protein and NDF are good indicators of the stage of maturity of cereal forage at harvest. Acid detergent fiber may not be a good indicator of the net energy in cereal silages. Diets should be formulated to contain the highest possible concentration of NDF from forage, but still meet the requirement for energy density.

Title: Particle Size and Ration Uniformity: Is it Important to the Cow?
Author: Sandra R. Stokes
Summary: Adequate particle length is necessary for sustaining stable rumen conditions. Ration uniformity is important to ensure that all cows receive a balanced ration, especially when multiple independent groups are fed from one mix source. Feeding management can alter ration potential and influence animal performance. A primary goal of any dairy feed program should be a uniform mix with minimal physical destruction of feedstuffs. Field factors affecting the final ration characteristics include mixer design and mixing management.

Title: Raising Replacement Heifers from Birth to Weaning
Author: James D Quigley, III
Summary: Raising calves from birth to weaning requires considerable management and attention to detail. Four critical areas are most important to successful calf raising: colostrum management, liquid feeding, calf starter and ruminal development, and housing. Colostrum quality, quantity fed, and timing of colostrum feeding determine the acquisition of passive immunity and resistance to disease prior to weaning. Liquid feeding (milk, milk replacer, or alternative liquid sources) provides nutrients for maintenance and limited body weight gain prior to weaning.

6. Maintaining Healthy Cows

Title: Economics of Mastitis Control
Author: Wayne H. Howard
Summary: Somatic cell count (SCC) scores for individual cows are more accurate than bulk tank SCC scores for monitoring udder health and milk loss due to mastitis. Comparing the costs and benefits of recommended mastitis control practices indicates that teat dipping after milking, washing, and drying udders before milking, and regular milking machine maintenance are economical. Using a sanitizer in the washing solution and having a service company change inflations is not economical. Dry cow treatment has mixed results: treating all quarters of all cows is economical, but the difference between benefits and costs is even greater when treating selected cows only. However, the selection criteria is not known.

Title: Can Somatic Cell Counts Get Too Low?
Author: Leo L. Timms
Summary: Somatic cells are white blood cells which function to fight infection and repair tissue damage. Somatic cell levels or numbers in the mammary gland do not reflect the pool of cells which can be recruited from the blood to fight infections. Therefore, a low somatic cell count does not mean that cow’s are more susceptible to mastitis. The key to mastitis prevention is healthy cows with healthy cells that can be recruited quickly to fight mastitis battles in the udder when needed.

Title: Understanding Herd Lameness – A Worthwhile Investment. Recognizing the Problem and its Cause
Author: Paul R. Greenough
Summary: The incidence of lameness in dairy cows is increasing, the underlying cause being the introduction of new technologies related to nutrition and management. The hidden cost of lameness is considerable. Producers must learn to recognize the various disease problems and understand the many different factors that contribute to the appearance of these diseases.

7. Creating the Right Environment

Title: Custom Rearing of Replacement Heifers
Author: Jack Rodenburg
Summary: Custom heifer raising is not common in Ontario. There are only a handful of commercial custom heifer feeding operations and even fewer that have been established long enough to qualify as successful businesses. Most agreements involve small numbers and part time labor utilizing otherwise empty facilities. Many are seasonal and based on nonworkable pasture land on a neighboring cash crop operation. Despite its unpopularity, custom agreements for heifer raising can have major benefits for both the dairy producer and the custom feeder.

Title: Cow Comfort and Herd Health: A Nutritionist’s Perspective
Author: Rick Grant
Summary: Critical components of the cow’s environment determine cow comfort. These include such factors as free stalls, floors, ventilation, self-locking stanchions, and bedding. Cow comfort can directly impact herd health and thus directly and indirectly affect the cow’s ability to express intense feeding behavior. From a nutritionist’s perspective, achieving maximum feed intake is critical to a successful feeding program and optimal productivity. Therefore, ensuring cow comfort and herd health must be considered in any completely effective feeding management program.

Title: Getting the Management Information You Need – When You Need It
Authors: Steve Mason and John J. Kennelly
Summary: The development of the World Wide Web has made it possible for anyone with a modem-equipped computer to access information anywhere in the world on demand. The key to unlocking the potential of the Web is the development of fully-indexed and hyperlinked information systems which will allow the user to find the specific information required with a minimum of time and effort. DairyNet will provide dairy managers and advisors with a comprehensive, authoritative, and accurate source of dairy management information.

Title: Adapting Bovine Behavior to Improve Performance
Author: Temple Grandin

Title: Harvesting More Milk by Fine Tuning Your Milking Equipment
Author: Leo Timms

8. Managing Expansion for Profit

Title: Setting the Stage for Expansion – An Environmental Assessment
Author: Scott R. Jeffrey
Summary: Dairy expansion should be considered within the context of achieving business goals; that is, will expansion allow the producer to achieve his/her goals. This requires rigorous analysis of environmental and organizational factors. There are many ways to expand, some of which include further specialization in combination with dairy herd expansion. There is no single answer as to the best type of expansion or the optimal herd size for every producer. Successful dairy expansion requires good management. Expansion is not a substitute for good management in terms of improved performance.

Title: Dairy Expansion and Human Resource Management
Authors: Wayne H. Howard and Lorne Owen
Summary: Expanding dairy operations requires additional labour, which in turn requires a human resource management plan. Components of a good HRM plan include an organization chart for the operation, job descriptions, and compensation plans with pay grids. Most of all, an expanding operation requires leadership and supervisory skills.

Title: Keeping Expansion Costs under Control 
Author: Jack Rodenburg
Summary: In the next decade, the profile of the Canadian dairy industry and of the rural community it supports will change dramatically. For many individuals, these changes will result in the retirement of both the operator and the farmstead from the industry. For others, the challenges represent a call to use their entrepreneurial skills to respond to opportunities and secure a place in the future.

Title: Financial Structure, Firm-Growth, and Survival
Authors: Frank Novak and Scott Jeffrey
Summary: Expansion decisions must consider the combined effects of business risk and financial risk on growth and survival. Leverage can enhance growth, but it will also enhance variability in returns to equity owners of the business. Debt financed expansion designed to increase profitability through economies of size may actually destabilize returns enough to increase the risk of failure. Choice of financial structure (financial risk) is at least as important a decision as subsequent management opportunities to improve returns or reduce business risk.